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Companies Act, 2013 – Section 251 onwards

Companies Act, 2013 – Section 251 onwards

251. Fraudulent application for removal of name

(1) Where it is found that an application by a company under sub-section (2) of section 248 has been made with the object of evading the liabilities of the company or with the intention to deceive the creditors or to defraud any other persons, the persons in charge of the management of the company shall, notwithstanding that the company has been notified as dissolved—

(a) be jointly and severally liable to any person or persons who had incurred loss or damage as a result of the company being notified as dissolved; and

(b) be punishable for fraud in the manner as provided in section 447.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in sub-section (1), the Registrar may also recommend prosecution of the persons responsible for the filing of an application under sub-section (2) of section 248.

252. Appeal to Tribunal

(1) Any person aggrieved by an order of the Registrar, notifying a company as dissolved under section 248, may file an appeal to the Tribunal within a period of three years from the date of the order of the Registrar and if the Tribunal is of the opinion that the removal of the name of the company from the register of companies is not justified in view of the absence of any of the grounds on which the order was passed by the Registrar, it may order restoration of the name of the company in the register of companies: Provided that before passing any order under this section, the Tribunal shall give a reasonable opportunity of making representations and of being heard to the Registrar, the company and all the persons concerned : Provided further that if the Registrar is satisfied, that the name of the company has been struck off from the register of companies either inadvertently or on the basis of incorrect information furnished by the company or its directors, which requires restoration in the register of companies, he may within a period of three years from the date of passing of the order dissolving the company under section 248, file an application before the Tribunal seeking restoration of name of such company.

(2) A copy of the order passed by the Tribunal shall be filed by the company with the Registrar within thirty days from the date of the order and on receipt of the order, the Registrar shall cause the name of the company to be restored in the register of companies and shall issue a fresh certificate of incorporation.

(3) If a company, or any member or creditor or workman thereof feels aggrieved by the company having its name struck off from the register of companies, the Tribunal on an application made by the company, member, creditor or workman before the expiry of twenty years from the publication in the Official Gazette of the notice under sub-section (5) of section 248 may, if satisfied that the company was, at the time of its name being struck off, carrying on business or in operation or otherwise it is just that the name of the company be restored to the register of companies, order the name of the company to be restored to the register of companies, and the Tribunal may, by the order, give such other directions and make such provisions as deemed just for placing the company and all other persons in the same position as nearly as may be as if the name of the company had not been struck off from the register of companies.

253. Determination of sickness

(1) Where on a demand by the secured creditors of a company representing fifty per cent. or more of its outstanding amount of debt, the company has failed to pay the debt within a period of thirty days of the service of the notice of demand or to secure or compound it to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditors, any secured creditor may file an application to the Tribunal in the prescribed manner along with the relevant evidence for such default, non-repayment or failure to offer security or compound it, for a determination that the company be declared as a sick company.

(2) The applicant under sub-section (1) may, along with an application under that subsection or at any stage of the proceedings thereafter, make an application for the stay of any proceeding for the winding up of the company or for execution, distress or the like against any property and assets of the company or for the appointment of a receiver in respect thereof and that no suit for the recovery of any money or for the enforcement of any security against the company shall lie or be proceeded with.

(3) The Tribunal may pass an order in respect of an application under sub-section (2) which shall be operative for a period of one hundred and twenty days.

(4) The company referred to in sub-section (1) may also file an application to the Tribunal on one or more of the grounds specified in sub-sections (1) and (2) above.

(5) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-sections (1) to (4), the Central Government or the Reserve Bank of India or a State Government or a public financial institution or a State level institution or a scheduled bank may, if it has sufficient reasons to believe that any company has become, for the purposes of this Act, a sick company, make a reference in respect of such company to the Tribunal for determination of the measures which may be adopted with respect to such company: Provided that a reference shall not be made under this sub-section in respect of any company by—

(a) the Government of any State unless all or any of the undertakings belonging to such company are situated in such State;

(b) a public financial institution or a State level institution or a scheduled bank unless it has, by reason of any financial assistance or obligation rendered by it, or undertaken by it, with respect to such company, an interest in such company.

(6) Where an application under sub-section (1) or sub-section (4) has been filed,—

(a) the company shall not dispose of or otherwise enter into any obligation with regard to, its properties or assets except as required in the normal course of business;

(b) the Board of Directors shall not take any steps likely to prejudice the interests of the creditors.

(7) The Tribunal shall, within a period of sixty days of the receipt of an application under sub-section (1) or sub-section (4), determine whether the company is a sick company or not: Provided that no such determination shall be made in respect of an application under sub-section (1) unless the company has been given notice of the application and a reasonable opportunity to reply to the notice within thirty days of the receipt thereof.

(8) If the Tribunal is satisfied that a company has become a sick company, the Tribunal shall, after considering all the relevant facts and circumstances of the case, decide, as soon as may be, by an order in writing, whether it is practicable for the company to make the repayment of its debts referred to in sub-section (1) within a reasonable time.

(9) If the Tribunal deems fit under sub-section (8) that it is practicable for a sick company to pay its debts referred to in that sub-section within a reasonable time, the Tribunal shall, by order in writing and subject to such restrictions or conditions as may be specified in the order, give such time to the company as it may deem fit to make repayment of the debt.

254. Application for revival and rehabilitation

(1) On the determination of a company as a sick company by the Tribunal under section 253, any secured creditor of that company or the company may make an application to the Tribunal for the determination of the measures that may be adopted with respect to the revival and rehabilitation of such company: Provided that in case any reference had been made before the Tribunal and a scheme for revival and rehabilitation submitted, such reference shall abate if the secured creditors representing three-fourths in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower have taken measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002: Provided further that no reference shall be made under this section if the secured creditors representing three-fourths in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower have taken measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002: Provided also that where the financial assets of the sick company had been acquired by any securitisation company or reconstruction company under sub-section (1) of section 5 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, no such application shall be made without the consent of securitization company or reconstruction company which has acquired such assets.

(2) An application under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by—

(a) audited financial statements of the company relating to the immediately preceding financial year;

(b) such particulars and documents, duly authenticated in such manner, along with such fees as may be prescribed; and

(c) a draft scheme of revival and rehabilitation of the company in such manner as may be prescribed: Provided that where the sick company has no draft scheme of revival and rehabilitation to offer, it shall file a declaration to that effect along with the application.

(3) An application under sub-section (1) shall be made to the Tribunal within a period of sixty days from the date of determination of the company as a sick company by the Tribunal under section 253.

255. Exclusion of certain time in computing period of limitation

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Limitation Act, 1963 or in any other law for the time being in force, in computing the period of limitation specified for any suit or application in the name and on behalf of a company for which an application has been made to the Tribunal under sub-section (1) of section 253, for a determination to be declared as a sick company or at any stage thereafter, the period during which the stay order as provided under sub-section (3) of section 253, was applicable shall be excluded.

256. Appointment of interim administrator

(1) On the receipt of an application under section 254, the Tribunal shall, not later than seven days from such receipt,—

(a) fix a date for hearing not later than ninety days from date of its receipt;

(b) appoint an interim administrator to convene a meeting of creditors of the company in accordance with the provisions of section 257 to be held not later than forty-five days from receipt of the order of the Tribunal appointing him to consider whether on the basis of the particulars and documents furnished with the application made under section 254, the draft scheme, if any, filed along with such application or otherwise and any other material available, it is possible to revive and rehabilitate the sick company and such other matters, which the interim administrator may consider necessary for the purpose and to submit his report to the Tribunal within sixty days from the date of the order: Provided that where no draft scheme is filed by the company and a declaration has been made to that effect by the Board of Directors, the Tribunal may direct the interim administrator to take over the management of the company; and

(c) issue such other directions to the interim administrator as the Tribunal may consider necessary to protect and preserve the assets of the sick company and for its proper management.

(2) Where an interim administrator has been directed to take over the management of the company, the directors and the management of the company shall extend all possible assistance and cooperation to the interim administrator to manage the affairs of the company.

257. Committee of creditors

(1) The interim administrator shall appoint a committee of creditors with such number of members as he may determine, but not exceeding seven, and as far as possible a representative each of every class of creditors should be represented in that committee.

(2) The holding of the meeting of the committee of creditors and the procedure to be followed at such meetings, including the appointment of its chairperson, shall be decided by the interim administrator.

(3) The interim administrator may direct any promoter, director or any key managerial personnel to attend any meeting of the committee of creditors and to furnish such information as may be considered necessary by the interim administrator.

258. Order of Tribunal

On the date of hearing fixed by the Tribunal and on consideration of the report of the interim administrator filed under sub-section (1) of section 256, if the Tribunal is satisfied that the creditors representing three-fourths in value of the amount outstanding against the sick company present and voting have resolved that—

(a) it is not possible to revive and rehabilitate such company, the Tribunal shall record such opinion and order that the proceedings for the winding up of the company be initiated; or

(b) by adopting certain measures the sick company may be revived and rehabilitated, the Tribunal shall appoint a company administrator for the company and cause such administrator to prepare a scheme of revival and rehabilitation of the sick company: Provided that the Tribunal may, if it thinks fit, appoint an interim administrator as the company administrator.

259. Appointment of administrator

(1) The interim administrator or the company administrator, as the case may be, shall be appointed by the Tribunal from a databank maintained by the Central Government or any institute or agency authorised by the Central Government in a manner as may be prescribed consisting of the names of company secretaries, chartered accountants, cost accountants and such other professionals as may, by notification, be specified by the Central Government.

(2) The terms and conditions of the appointment of interim and company administrators shall be such as may be ordered by the Tribunal.

(3) The Tribunal may direct the company administrator to take over the assets or management of the company and for the purpose of assisting him in the management of the company, the company administrator may, with the approval of the Tribunal, engage the services of suitable expert or experts.

260. Powers and duties of company administrator

(1) The company administrator shall perform such functions as the Tribunal may direct.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the company administrator may cause to be prepared with respect to the company—

(a) a complete inventory of—

(i) all assets and liabilities of whatever nature;

(ii) all books of account, registers, maps, plans, records, documents of title and all other documents of whatever nature;

(b) a list of shareholders and a list of creditors showing separately in the list of creditors, the secured creditors and unsecured creditors;

(c) a valuation report in respect of the shares and assets in order to arrive at the reserve price for the sale of any industrial undertaking of the company or for the fixation of the lease rent or share exchange ratio;

(d) an estimate of the reserve price, lease rent or share exchange ratio;

(e) proforma accounts of the company, where no up-to-date audited accounts are available; and

(f) a list of workmen of the company and their dues referred to in sub-section (3) of section 325.

261. Scheme of revival and rehabilitation

(1) The company administrator shall prepare or cause to be prepared a scheme of revival and rehabilitation of the sick company after considering the draft scheme filed along with the application under section 254.

(2) A scheme prepared in relation to any sick company under sub-section (1) may provide for any one or more of the following measures, namely:—

(a) the financial reconstruction of the sick company;

(b) the proper management of the sick company by any change in, or by taking over, the management of such company;

(c) the amalgamation of—

(i) the sick company with any other company; or

(ii) any other company with the sick company;

(d) takeover of the sick company by a solvent company;

(e) the sale or lease of a part or whole of any asset or business of the sick company;

(f) the rationalisation of managerial personnel, supervisory staff and workmen in accordance with law;

(g) such other preventive, ameliorative and remedial measures as may be appropriate;

(h) repayment or rescheduling or restructuring of the debts or obligations of the sick company to any of its creditors or class of creditors;

(i) such incidental, consequential or supplemental measures as may be necessary or expedient in connection with or for the purposes of the measures specified in clauses (a) to (h).

262. Sanction of scheme

(1) The scheme prepared by the company administrator under section 261 shall be placed before the creditors of the sick company in a meeting convened for their approval by the company administrator within the period of sixty days from his appointment, which may be extended by the Tribunal up to a period not exceeding one hundred twenty days.

(2) The company administrator shall convene separate meetings of secured and unsecured creditors of the sick company and if the scheme is approved by the unsecured creditors representing one-fourth in value of the amount owed by the company to such creditors and the secured creditors, representing three-fourths in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed by such creditors to the sick company, the company administrator shall submit the scheme before the Tribunal for sanctioning the scheme: Provided that where the scheme relates to amalgamation of the sick company with any other company, such scheme shall, in addition to the approval of the creditors of the sick company under this sub-section, be laid before the general meeting of both the companies for approval by their respective shareholders and no such scheme shall be proceeded with unless it has been approved, with or without modification, by a special resolution passed by the shareholders of that company.

(3) (i) The scheme prepared by the company administrator shall be examined by the Tribunal and a copy of the scheme with modification, if any, made by the Tribunal shall be sent, in draft, to the sick company and the company administrator and in the case of amalgamation, also to any other company concerned, and the Tribunal may publish or cause to be published the draft scheme in brief in such daily newspapers as the Tribunal may consider necessary, for suggestions and objections, if any, within such period as the Tribunal may specify.

(ii) The complete draft scheme shall be kept at the place where registered office of the company is situated or at such places as mentioned in the advertisement.

(iii) The Tribunal may make such modifications, if any, in the draft scheme as it may consider necessary in the light of the suggestions and objections received from the sick company and the company administrator and also from the transferee company and any other company concerned in the amalgamation and from any shareholder or any creditors or employees of such companies.

(4) On the receipt of the scheme under sub-section (3), the Tribunal shall within sixty days there from, after satisfying that the scheme had been validly approved in accordance with this section, pass an order sanctioning such scheme.

(5) Where a sanctioned scheme provides for the transfer of any property or liability of the sick company to any other company or person or where such scheme provides for the transfer of any property or liability of any other company or person in favour of the sick company, then, by virtue of, and to the extent provided in, the scheme, on and from the date of coming into operation of the sanctioned scheme or any provision thereof, the property shall be transferred to, and vest in, and the liability shall become the liability of, such other company or person or, as the case may be, the sick company.

(6) The Tribunal may review any sanctioned scheme and make such modifications, as it may deem fit, or may by order in writing direct company administrator, to prepare a fresh scheme providing for such measures as the company administrator may consider necessary.

(7) The sanction accorded by the Tribunal under sub-section (4) shall be conclusive evidence that all the requirements of the scheme relating to the reconstruction or amalgamation or any other measure specified therein have been complied with and a copy of the sanctioned scheme certified in writing by an officer of the Tribunal to be a true copy thereof shall in all legal proceedings be admitted as evidence.

(8) A copy of the sanctioned scheme referred to in sub-section (4) shall be filed with the Registrar by the sick company within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of a copy thereof.

263. Scheme to be binding

On and from the date of the coming into operation of the sanctioned scheme or any provision thereof, the scheme or such provision shall be binding on the sick company and the transferee company or, as the case may be, the other company and also on the employees, shareholders, creditors and guarantors of the said companies.

264. Implementation of scheme

(1) The Tribunal shall, for the purpose of effective implementation of the scheme, have power to enforce, modify or terminate any contract or agreement or any obligation pursuant to such agreement or contract entered into by the company with any other person.

(2) The Tribunal may, if it deems necessary or expedient so to do, by order in writing, authorise the company administrator appointed under section 259 to implement a sanctioned scheme till its successful implementation on such terms and conditions as may be specified in the order and may for that purpose require him to file periodic reports on the implementation of the sanctioned scheme.

(3) Where the whole or substantial assets of the undertaking of the sick company are sold under a sanctioned scheme, the sale proceeds shall be applied towards implementation of the scheme in such manner as the Tribunal may direct: Provided that debtors and creditors shall have the power to scrutinise and make an appeal for review of the value before final order of fixing value.

(4) Where it is difficult to implement the scheme for any reason or the scheme fails due to non-implementation of obligations under the scheme by the parties concerned, the company administrator authorised to implement the scheme and where there is no such administrator, the company, the secured creditors, or the transferee company in a case of amalgamation, may make an application before the Tribunal for modification of the scheme or to declare the scheme as failed and that the company may be wound up.

(5) The Tribunal shall, within thirty days of presentation of an application under sub-section (4), pass an order for modification of the scheme or, as the case may be, declaring the scheme as failed and pass an order for the winding up of the company if three-fourths in value of the secured creditors consent to the modification of the scheme or winding up of the company.

(6) Where an application under sub-section (4) has been made before the Tribunal and such application is pending before it, such application shall abate, if the secured creditors representing not less than three-fourths in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the sick company have taken any measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.

265. Winding up of company on report of company administrator

(1) If the scheme is not approved by the creditors in the manner specified in sub-section (2) of section 262, the company administrator shall submit a report to the Tribunal within fifteen days and the Tribunal shall order for the winding up of the sick company.

(2) On the passing of an order under sub-section (1), the Tribunal shall conduct the proceedings for winding up of the sick company in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XX.

266. Power of Tribunal to assess damages against delinquent directors, etc

(1) If, in the course of the scrutiny or implementation of any scheme or proposal including the draft scheme or proposal, it appears to the Tribunal that any person who has taken part in the promotion, formation or management of the sick company or its undertaking, including any director, manager, officer or employee of the sick company who are or have been in employment of such company,—

(a) has misapplied or retained, or become liable or accountable for, any money or property of the sick company; or

(b) has been guilty of any misfeasance, malfeasance, non-feasance or breach of trust in relation to the sick company, it may, by order, direct him to repay or restore the money or property, with or without interest, as it thinks just, or to contribute such sum to the assets of the sick company or the other person, entitled thereto by way of compensation in respect of the misapplication, retainer, misfeasance, malfeasance, non-feasance or breach of trust as the Tribunal thinks just and proper: Provided that such direction by the Tribunal shall be without prejudice to any other legal action that may be taken against the person including any punishment for fraud in the manner as provided in section 447.

(2) If the Tribunal is satisfied on the basis of the information and evidence in its possession with respect to any person who is or was a director or an officer or other employee of the sick company, that such person by himself or along with others had diverted the funds or other property of such company for any purpose other than the purposes of the company or had managed the affairs of the company in a manner highly detrimental to the interests of the company, the Tribunal shall, by order, direct the public financial institutions, scheduled banks and State level institutions not to provide, for a maximum period of ten years from the date of the order, any financial assistance to such person or any firm of which such person is a partner or any company or other body corporate of which such person is a director, by whatever name called, or to disqualify the said director, promoter, manager from being appointed as a director in any company registered under this Act for a maximum period of six years.

(3) No order shall be made by the Tribunal under this section against any person unless such person has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

267. Punishment for certain offences

Whoever violates the provisions of this Chapter or any scheme, or any order, of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal or makes a false statement or gives false evidence before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal or attempts to tamper with the records of reference or appeal filed under this Act, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.

268. Bar of jurisdiction

No appeal shall lie in any court or other authority and no civil court shall have any jurisdiction in respect of any matter in respect of which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered by or under this Chapter and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or proposed to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Chapter.

269. Rehabilitation and Insolvency Fund

(1) There shall be formed a Fund to be called the Rehabilitation and Insolvency Fund for the purposes of rehabilitation, revival and liquidation of the sick companies.

(2) There shall be credited to the Fund—

(a) the grants made by the Central Government for the purposes of the Fund;

(b) the amount deposited by the companies as contribution to the Fund;

(c) the amount given to the Fund from any other source; and

(d) the income from investment of the amount in the Fund.

(3) A company which has contributed any amount to the Fund shall, in the event of proceedings initiated in respect of such company under this Chapter or Chapter XX, may make an application to the Tribunal for withdrawal of funds not exceeding the amount contributed by it, for making payments to workmen, protecting the assets of the company or meeting the incidental costs during proceedings.

(4) The Fund shall be managed by an administrator to be appointed by the Central Government in such manner as may be prescribed.

270. Modes of winding up

(1) The winding up of a company may be either—

(a) by the Tribunal; or

(b) voluntary.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other Act, the provisions of this Act with respect to winding up shall apply to the winding up of a company in any of the modes specified under sub-section (1).

271. Circumstances in which company may be wound up by Tribunal

(1) A company may, on a petition under section 272, be wound up by the Tribunal,—

(a) if the company is unable to pay its debts;

(b) if the company has, by special resolution, resolved that the company be wound up by the Tribunal;

(c) if the company has acted against the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality;

(d) if the Tribunal has ordered the winding up of the company under Chapter XIX;

(e) if on an application made by the Registrar or any other person authorised by the Central Government by notification under this Act, the Tribunal is of the opinion that the affairs of the company have been conducted in a fraudulent manner or the company was formed for fraudulent and unlawful purpose or the persons concerned in the formation or management of its affairs have been guilty of fraud, misfeasance or misconduct in connection therewith and that it is proper that the company be wound up;

(f) if the company has made a default in filing with the Registrar its financial statements or annual returns for immediately preceding five consecutive financial years; or

(g) if the Tribunal is of the opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.

(2) A company shall be deemed to be unable to pay its debts,—

(a) if a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the company is indebted for an amount exceeding one lakh rupees then due, has served on the company, by causing it to be delivered at its registered office, by registered post or otherwise, a demand requiring the company to pay the amount so due and the company has failed to pay the sum within twenty-one days after the receipt of such demand or to provide adequate security or re-structure or compound the debt to the reasonable satisfaction of the creditor;

(b) if any execution or other process issued on a decree or order of any court or tribunal in favour of a creditor of the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part; or

(c) if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Tribunal that the company is unable to pay its debts, and, in determining whether a company is unable to pay its debts, the Tribunal shall take into account the contingent and prospective liabilities of the company.

272. Petition for winding up

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a petition to the Tribunal for the winding up of a company shall be presented by—

(a) the company;

(b) any creditor or creditors, including any contingent or prospective creditor or creditors;

(c) any contributory or contributories;

(d) all or any of the persons specified in clauses (a), (b) and (c) together;

(e) the Registrar;

(f) any person authorised by the Central Government in that behalf; or

(g) in a case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 271, by the Central Government or a State Government.

(2) A secured creditor, the holder of any debentures, whether or not any trustee or trustees have been appointed in respect of such and other like debentures, and the trustee for the holders of debentures shall be deemed to be creditors within the meaning of clause (b) of sub-section (1).

(3) A contributory shall be entitled to present a petition for the winding up of a company, notwithstanding that he may be the holder of fully paid-up shares, or that the company may have no assets at all or may have no surplus assets left for distribution among the shareholders after the satisfaction of its liabilities, and shares in respect of which he is a contributory or some of them were either originally allotted to him or have been held by him, and registered in his name, for at least six months during the eighteen months immediately before the commencement of the winding up or have devolved on him through the death of a former holder.

(4) The Registrar shall be entitled to present a petition for winding up under subsection

(1) on any of the grounds specified in sub-section (1) of section 271, except on the grounds specified in clause (b), clause (d) or clause (g) of that sub-section: Provided that the Registrar shall not present a petition on the ground that the company is unable to pay its debts unless it appears to him either from the financial condition of the company as disclosed in its balance sheet or from the report of an inspector appointed under section 210 that the company is unable to pay its debts: Provided further that the Registrar shall obtain the previous sanction of the Central Government to the presentation of a petition: Provided also that the Central Government shall not accord its sanction unless the company has been given a reasonable opportunity of making representations.

(5) A petition presented by the company for winding up before the Tribunal shall be admitted only if accompanied by a statement of affairs in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed.

(6) Before a petition for winding up of a company presented by a contingent or prospective creditor is admitted, the leave of the Tribunal shall be obtained for the admission of the petition and such leave shall not be granted, unless in the opinion of the Tribunal there is a prima facie case for the winding up of the company and until such security for costs has been given as the Tribunal thinks reasonable.

(7) A copy of the petition made under this section shall also be filed with the Registrar and the Registrar shall, without prejudice to any other provisions, submit his views to the Tribunal within sixty days of receipt of such petition.

273. Powers of Tribunal

(1) The Tribunal may, on receipt of a petition for winding up under section 272 pass any of the following orders, namely:—

(a) dismiss it, with or without costs;

(b) make any interim order as it thinks fit;

(c) appoint a provisional liquidator of the company till the making of a winding up order;

(d) make an order for the winding up of the company with or without costs; or

(e) any other order as it thinks fit: Provided that an order under this sub-section shall be made within ninety days from the date of presentation of the petition: Provided further that before appointing a provisional liquidator under clause (c), the Tribunal shall give notice to the company and afford a reasonable opportunity to it to make its representations, if any, unless for special reasons to be recorded in writing, the Tribunal thinks fit to dispense with such notice: Provided also that the Tribunal shall not refuse to make a winding up order on the ground only that the assets of the company have been mortgaged for an amount equal to or in excess of those assets, or that the company has no assets.

(2) Where a petition is presented on the ground that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up, the Tribunal may refuse to make an order of winding up, if it is of the opinion that some other remedy is available to the petitioners and that they are acting unreasonably in seeking to have the company wound up instead of pursuing the other remedy.

274. Directions for filing statement of affairs

(1) Where a petition for winding up is filed before the Tribunal by any person other than the company, the Tribunal shall, if satisfied that a prima facie case for winding up of the company is made out, by an order direct the company to file its objections along with a statement of its affairs within thirty days of the order in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed: Provided that the Tribunal may allow a further period of thirty days in a situation of contingency or special circumstances: Provided further that the Tribunal may direct the petitioner to deposit such security for costs as it may consider reasonable as a precondition to issue directions to the company.

(2) A company, which fails to file the statement of affairs as referred to in sub-section (1), shall forfeit the right to oppose the petition and such directors and officers of the company as found responsible for such non-compliance, shall be liable for punishment under sub-section (4).

(3) The directors and other officers of the company, in respect of which an order for winding up is passed by the Tribunal under clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 273, shall, within a period of thirty days of such order, submit, at the cost of the company, the books of account of the company completed and audited up to the date of the order, to such liquidator and in the manner specified by the Tribunal.

(4) If any director or officer of the company contravenes the provisions of this section, the director or the officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.

(5) The complaint may be filed in this behalf before the Special Court by Registrar, provisional liquidator, Company Liquidator or any person authorised by the Tribunal.

275. Company Liquidators and their appointments

(1) For the purposes of winding up of a company by the Tribunal, the Tribunal at the time of the passing of the order of winding up, shall appoint an Official Liquidator or a liquidator from the panel maintained under sub-section (2) as the Company Liquidator.

(2) The provisional liquidator or the Company Liquidator, as the case may be, shall be appointed from a panel maintained by the Central Government consisting of the names of chartered accountants, advocates, company secretaries, cost accountants or firms or bodies corporate having such chartered accountants, advocates, company secretaries, cost accountants and such other professionals as may be notified by the Central Government or from a firm or a body corporate of persons having a combination of such professionals as may be prescribed and having at least ten years’ experience in company matters.

(3) Where a provisional liquidator is appointed by the Tribunal, the Tribunal may limit and restrict his powers by the order appointing him or it or by a subsequent order, but otherwise he shall have the same powers as a liquidator.

(4) The Central Government may remove the name of any person or firm or body corporate from the panel maintained under sub-section (2) on the grounds of misconduct, fraud, misfeasance, breach of duties or professional incompetence: Provided that the Central Government before removing him or it from the panel shall give him or it a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(5) The terms and conditions of appointment of a provisional liquidator or Company Liquidator and the fee payable to him or it shall be specified by the Tribunal on the basis of task required to be performed, experience, qualification of such liquidator and size of the company.

(6) On appointment as provisional liquidator or Company Liquidator, as the case may be, such liquidator shall file a declaration within seven days from the date of appointment in the prescribed form disclosing conflict of interest or lack of independence in respect of his appointment, if any, with the Tribunal and such obligation shall continue throughout the term of his appointment.

(7) While passing a winding up order, the Tribunal may appoint a provisional liquidator, if any, appointed under clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 273, as the Company Liquidator for the conduct of the proceedings for the winding up of the company.

276. Removal and replacement of liquidator

(1) The Tribunal may, on a reasonable cause being shown and for reasons to be recorded in writing, remove the provisional liquidator or the Company Liquidator, as the case may be, as liquidator of the company on any of the following grounds, namely:—

(a) misconduct;

(b) fraud or misfeasance;

(c) professional incompetence or failure to exercise due care and diligence in performance of the powers and functions;

(d) inability to act as provisional liquidator or as the case may be, Company Liquidator;

(e) conflict of interest or lack of independence during the term of his appointment that would justify removal.

(2) In the event of death, resignation or removal of the provisional liquidator or as the case may be, Company Liquidator, the Tribunal may transfer the work assigned to him or it to another Company Liquidator for reasons to be recorded in writing.

(3) Where the Tribunal is of the opinion that any liquidator is responsible for causing any loss or damage to the company due to fraud or misfeasance or failure to exercise due care and diligence in the performance of his or its powers and functions, the Tribunal may recover or cause to be recovered such loss or damage from the liquidator and pass such other orders as it may think fit.

(4) The Tribunal shall, before passing any order under this section, provide a reasonable opportunity of being heard to the provisional liquidator or, as the case may be, Company Liquidator.

277. Intimation to Company Liquidator, provisional liquidator and Registrar

(1) Where the Tribunal makes an order for appointment of provisional liquidator or for the winding up of a company, it shall, within a period not exceeding seven days from the date of passing of the order, cause intimation thereof to be sent to the Company Liquidator or provisional liquidator, as the case may be, and the Registrar.

(2) On receipt of the copy of order of appointment of provisional liquidator or winding up order, the Registrar shall make an endorsement to that effect in his records relating to the company and notify in the Official Gazette that such an order has been made and in the case of a listed company, the Registrar shall intimate about such appointment or order, as the case may be, to the stock exchange or exchanges where the securities of the company are listed.

(3) The winding up order shall be deemed to be a notice of discharge to the officers, employees and workmen of the company, except when the business of the company is continued.

(4) Within three weeks from the date of passing of winding up order, the Company

Liquidator shall make an application to the Tribunal for constitution of a winding up committee to assist and monitor the progress of liquidation proceedings by the Company Liquidator in carrying out the function as provided in sub-section (5) and such winding up committee shall comprise of the following persons, namely:—

(i) Official Liquidator attached to the Tribunal;

(ii) nominee of secured creditors; and

(iii) a professional nominated by the Tribunal.

(5) The Company Liquidator shall be the convener of the meetings of the winding up committee which shall assist and monitor the liquidation proceedings in following areas of liquidation functions, namely:—

(i) taking over assets;

(ii) examination of the statement of affairs;

(iii) recovery of property, cash or any other assets of the company including benefits derived therefrom;

(iv) review of audit reports and accounts of the company;

(v) sale of assets;

(vi) finalisation of list of creditors and contributories;

(vii) compromise, abandonment and settlement of claims;

(viii) payment of dividends, if any; and

(ix) any other function, as the Tribunal may direct from time to time.

(6) The Company Liquidator shall place before the Tribunal a report along with minutes of the meetings of the committee on monthly basis duly signed by the members present in the meeting for consideration till the final report for dissolution of the company is submitted before the Tribunal.

(7) The Company Liquidator shall prepare the draft final report for consideration and approval of the winding up committee.

(8) The final report so approved by the winding up committee shall be submitted by the Company Liquidator before the Tribunal for passing of a dissolution order in respect of the company.

278. Effect of winding up order

The order for the winding up of a company shall operate in favour of all the creditors and all contributories of the company as if it had been made out on the joint petition of creditors and contributories.

279. Stay of suits, etc., on winding up order

(1) When a winding up order has been passed or a provisional liquidator has been appointed, no suit or other legal proceeding shall be commenced, or if pending at the date of the winding up order, shall be proceeded with, by or against the company, except with the leave of the Tribunal and subject to such terms as the Tribunal may impose: Provided that any application to the Tribunal seeking leave under this section shall be disposed of by the Tribunal within sixty days.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to any proceeding pending in appeal before the Supreme Court or a High Court.

  1. Jurisdiction of Tribunal

The Tribunal shall, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, have jurisdiction to entertain, or dispose of,—

(a) any suit or proceeding by or against the company;

(b) any claim made by or against the company, including claims by or against any of its branches in India;

(c) any application made under section 233;

(d) any scheme submitted under section 262;

(e) any question of priorities or any other question whatsoever, whether of law or facts, including those relating to assets, business, actions, rights, entitlements, privileges, benefits, duties, responsibilities, obligations or in any matter arising out of, or in relation to winding up of the company, whether such suit or proceeding has been instituted, or is instituted, or such claim or question has arisen or arises or such application has been made or is made or such scheme has been submitted, or is submitted, before or after the order for the winding up of the company is made.

281. Submission of report by Company Liquidator

(1) Where the Tribunal has made a winding up order or appointed a Company

Liquidator, such liquidator shall, within sixty days from the order, submit to the Tribunal, a report containing the following particulars, namely:—

(a) the nature and details of the assets of the company including their location and value, stating separately the cash balance in hand and in the bank, if any, and the negotiable securities, if any, held by the company: Provided that the valuation of the assets shall be obtained from registered valuers for this purpose;

(b) amount of capital issued, subscribed and paid-up;

(c) the existing and contingent liabilities of the company including names, addresses and occupations of its creditors, stating separately the amount of secured and unsecured debts, and in the case of secured debts, particulars of the securities given, whether by the company or an officer thereof, their value and the dates on which they were given;

(d) the debts due to the company and the names, addresses and occupations of the persons from whom they are due and the amount likely to be realised on account thereof;

(e) guarantees, if any, extended by the company;

(f) list of contributories and dues, if any, payable by them and details of any unpaid call;

(g) details of trade marks and intellectual properties, if any, owned by the company;

(h) details of subsisting contracts, joint ventures and collaborations, if any;

(i) details of holding and subsidiary companies, if any;

(j) details of legal cases filed by or against the company; and

(k) any other information which the Tribunal may direct or the Company

Liquidator may consider necessary to include.

(2) The Company Liquidator shall include in his report the manner in which the company was promoted or formed and whether in his opinion any fraud has been committed by any person in its promotion or formation or by any officer of the company in relation to the company since the formation thereof and any other matters which, in his opinion, it is desirable to bring to the notice of the Tribunal.

(3) The Company Liquidator shall also make a report on the viability of the business of the company or the steps which, in his opinion, are necessary for maximising the value of the assets of the company.

(4) The Company Liquidator may also, if he thinks fit, make any further report or reports.

(5) Any person describing himself in writing to be a creditor or a contributory of the company shall be entitled by himself or by his agent at all reasonable times to inspect the report submitted in accordance with this section and take copies thereof or extracts therefrom on payment of the prescribed fees.

282. Directions of Tribunal on report of Company Liquidator

(1) The Tribunal shall, on consideration of the report of the Company Liquidator, fix a time limit within which the entire proceedings shall be completed and the company be dissolved:

Provided that the Tribunal may, if it is of the opinion, at any stage of the proceedings, or on examination of the reports submitted to it by the Company Liquidator and after hearing the Company Liquidator, creditors or contributories or any other interested person, that it will not be advantageous or economical to continue the proceedings, revise the time limit within which the entire proceedings shall be completed and the company be dissolved.

(2) The Tribunal may, on examination of the reports submitted to it by the Company Liquidator and after hearing the Company Liquidator, creditors or contributories or any other interested person, order sale of the company as a going concern or its assets or part thereof: Provided that the Tribunal may, where it considers fit, appoint a sale committee comprising such creditors, promoters and officers of the company as the Tribunal may decide to assist the Company Liquidator in sale under this sub-section.

(3) Where a report is received from the Company Liquidator or the Central Government or any person that a fraud has been committed in respect of the company, the Tribunal shall, without prejudice to the process of winding up, order for investigation under section 210, and on consideration of the report of such investigation it may pass order and give directions under sections 339 to 342 or direct the Company Liquidator to file a criminal complaint against persons who were involved in the commission of fraud.

(4) The Tribunal may order for taking such steps and measures, as may be necessary, to protect, preserve or enhance the value of the assets of the company.

(5) The Tribunal may pass such other order or give such other directions as it considers fit.

283. Custody of company’s properties

(1) Where a winding up order has been made or where a provisional liquidator has been appointed, the Company Liquidator or the provisional liquidator, as the case may be, shall, on the order of the Tribunal, forthwith take into his or its custody or control all the property, effects and actionable claims to which the company is or appears to be entitled to and take such steps and measures, as may be necessary, to protect and preserve the properties of the company.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), all the property and effects of the company shall be deemed to be in the custody of the Tribunal from the date of the order for the winding up of the company.

(3) On an application by the Company Liquidator or otherwise, the Tribunal may, at any time after the making of a winding up order, require any contributory for the time being on the list of contributories, and any trustee, receiver, banker, agent, officer or other employee of the company, to pay, deliver, surrender or transfer forthwith, or within such time as the Tribunal directs, to the Company Liquidator, any money, property or books and papers in his custody or under his control to which the company is or appears to be entitled.

284. Promoters, directors, etc., to cooperate with Company Liquidator

(1) The promoters, directors, officers and employees, who are or have been in employment of the company or acting or associated with the company shall extend full cooperation to the Company Liquidator in discharge of his functions and duties.

(2) Where any person, without reasonable cause, fails to discharge his obligations under sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees, or with both.

285. Settlement of list of contributories and application of assets

(1) As soon as may be after the passing of a winding up order by the Tribunal, the Tribunal shall settle a list of contributories, cause rectification of register of members in all cases where rectification is required in pursuance of this Act and shall cause the assets of the company to be applied for the discharge of its liability: Provided that where it appears to the Tribunal that it would not be necessary to make calls on or adjust the rights of contributories, the Tribunal may dispense with the settlement of a list of contributories.

(2) In settling the list of contributories, the Tribunal shall distinguish between those who are contributories in their own right and those who are contributories as being representatives of, or liable for the debts of, others.

(3) While settling the list of contributories, the Tribunal shall include every person, who is or has been a member, who shall be liable to contribute to the assets of the company an amount sufficient for payment of the debts and liabilities and the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, subject to the following conditions, namely:—

(a) a person who has been a member shall not be liable to contribute if he has ceased to be a member for the preceding one year or more before the commencement of the winding up;

(b) a person who has been a member shall not be liable to contribute in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to be a member;

(c) no person who has been a member shall be liable to contribute unless it appears to the Tribunal that the present members are unable to satisfy the contributions required to be made by them in pursuance of this Act;

(d) in the case of a company limited by shares, no contribution shall be required from any person, who is or has been a member exceeding the amount, if any, unpaid on the shares in respect of which he is liable as such member;

(e) in the case of a company limited by guarantee, no contribution shall be required from any person, who is or has been a member exceeding the amount undertaken to be contributed by him to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up but if the company has a share capital, such member shall be liable to contribute to the extent of any sum unpaid on any shares held by him as if the company were a company limited by shares.

286. Obligations of directors and managers

In the case of a limited company, any person who is or has been a director or manager, whose liability is unlimited under the provisions of this Act, shall, in addition to his liability, if any, to contribute as an ordinary member, be liable to make a further contribution as if he were at the commencement of winding up, a member of an unlimited company: Provided that —

(a) a person who has been a director or manager shall not be liable to make such further contribution, if he has ceased to hold office for a year or upwards before the commencement of the winding up;

(b) a person who has been a director or manager shall not be liable to make such further contribution in respect of any debt or liability of the company contracted after he ceased to hold office;

(c) subject to the articles of the company, a director or manager shall not be liable to make such further contribution unless the Tribunal deems it necessary to require the contribution in order to satisfy the debts and liabilities of the company, and the costs, charges and expenses of the winding up.

287. Advisory committee

(1) The Tribunal may, while passing an order of winding up of a company, direct that there shall be, an advisory committee to advise the Company Liquidator and to report to the Tribunal on such matters as the Tribunal may direct.

(2) The advisory committee appointed by the Tribunal shall consist of not more than twelve members, being creditors and contributories of the company or such other persons in such proportion as the Tribunal may, keeping in view the circumstances of the company under liquidation, direct.

(3) The Company Liquidator shall convene a meeting of creditors and contributories, as ascertained from the books and documents, of the company within thirty days from the date of order of winding up for enabling the Tribunal to determine the persons who may be members of the advisory committee.

(4) The advisory committee shall have the right to inspect the books of account and other documents, assets and properties of the company under liquidation at a reasonable time.

(5) The provisions relating to the convening of the meetings, the procedure to be followed thereat and other matters relating to conduct of business by the advisory committee shall be such as may be prescribed.

(6) The meeting of advisory committee shall be chaired by the Company Liquidator.

288. Submission of periodical reports to Tribunal

(1) The Company Liquidator shall make periodical reports to the Tribunal and in any case make a report at the end of each quarter with respect to the progress of the winding up of the company in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

(2) The Tribunal may, on an application by the Company Liquidator, review the orders made by it and make such modifications as it thinks fit.

289. Power of Tribunal on application for stay of winding up

(1) The Tribunal may, at any time after making a winding up order, on an application of promoter, shareholders or creditors or any other interested person, if satisfied, make an order that it is just and fair that an opportunity to revive and rehabilitate the company be provided staying the proceedings for such time but not exceeding one hundred and eighty days and on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit: Provided that an order under this sub-section shall be made by the Tribunal only when the application is accompanied with a scheme for rehabilitation.

(2) The Tribunal may, while passing the order under sub-section (1), require the applicant to furnish such security as to costs as it considers fit.

(3) Where an order under sub-section (1) is passed by the Tribunal, the provisions of Chapter XIX shall be followed in respect of the consideration and sanction of the scheme of revival of the company.

(4) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Tribunal may at any time after making a winding up order, on an application of the Company Liquidator, make an order staying the winding up proceedings or any part thereof, for such time and on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

(5) The Tribunal may, before making an order, under this section, require the Company Liquidator to furnish to it a report with respect to any facts or matters which are in his opinion relevant to the application.

(6) A copy of every order made under this section shall forthwith be forwarded by the Company Liquidator to the Registrar who shall make an endorsement of the order in his books and records relating to the company.

290. Powers and duties of Company Liquidator

(1) Subject to directions by the Tribunal, if any, in this regard, the Company Liquidator, in a winding up of a company by the Tribunal, shall have the power—

(a) to carry on the business of the company so far as may be necessary for the beneficial winding up of the company;

(b) to do all acts and to execute, in the name and on behalf of the company, all deeds, receipts and other documents, and for that purpose, to use, when necessary, the company’s seal;

(c) to sell the immovable and movable property and actionable claims of the company by public auction or private contract, with power to transfer such property to any person or body corporate, or to sell the same in parcels;

(d) to sell the whole of the undertaking of the company as a going concern;

(e) to raise any money required on the security of the assets of the company;

(f) to institute or defend any suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding, civil or criminal, in the name and on behalf of the company;

(g) to invite and settle claim of creditors, employees or any other claimant and distribute sale proceeds in accordance with priorities established under this Act;

(h) to inspect the records and returns of the company on the files of the Registrar or any other authority;

(i) to prove rank and claim in the insolvency of any contributory for any balance against his estate, and to receive dividends in the insolvency, in respect of that balance, as a separate debt due from the insolvent, and rateably with the other separate creditors;

(j) to draw, accept, make and endorse any negotiable instruments including cheque, bill of exchange, hundi or promissory note in the name and on behalf of the company, with the same effect with respect to the liability of the company as if such instruments had been drawn, accepted, made or endorsed by or on behalf of the company in the course of its business;

(k) to take out, in his official name, letters of administration to any deceased contributory, and to do in his official name any other act necessary for obtaining payment of any money due from a contributory or his estate which cannot be conveniently done in the name of the company, and in all such cases, the money due shall, for the purpose of enabling the Company Liquidator to take out the letters of administration or recover the money, be deemed to be due to the Company Liquidator himself;

(l) to obtain any professional assistance from any person or appoint any professional, in discharge of his duties, obligations and responsibilities and for protection of the assets of the company, appoint an agent to do any business which the Company Liquidator is unable to do himself;

(m) to take all such actions, steps, or to sign, execute and verify any paper, deed, document, application, petition, affidavit, bond or instrument as may be necessary,—

(i) for winding up of the company;

(ii) for distribution of assets;

(iii) in discharge of his duties and obligations and functions as Company Liquidator; and

(n) to apply to the Tribunal for such orders or directions as may be necessary for the winding up of the company.

(2) The exercise of powers by the Company Liquidator under sub-section (1) shall be subject to the overall control of the Tribunal.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-section (1), the Company Liquidator shall perform such other duties as the Tribunal may specify in this behalf.

291. Provision for professional assistance to Company Liquidator

(1) The Company Liquidator may, with the sanction of the Tribunal, appoint one or more chartered accountants or company secretaries or cost accountants or legal practitioners or such other professionals on such terms and conditions, as may be necessary, to assist him in the performance of his duties and functions under this Act.

(2) Any person appointed under this section shall disclose forthwith to the Tribunal in the prescribed form any conflict of interest or lack of independence in respect of his appointment.

292. Exercise and control of Company Liquidator’s powers

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Company Liquidator shall, in the administration of the assets of the company and the distribution thereof among its creditors, have regard to any directions which may be given by the resolution of the creditors or contributories at any general meeting or by the advisory committee.

(2) Any directions given by the creditors or contributories at any general meeting shall, in case of conflict, be deemed to override any directions given by the advisory committee.

(3) The Company Liquidator—

(a) may summon meetings of the creditors or contributories, whenever he thinks fit, for the purpose of ascertaining their wishes; and

(b) shall summon such meetings at such times, as the creditors or contributories, as the case may be, may, by resolution, direct, or whenever requested in writing to do so by not less than one-tenth in value of the creditors or contributories, as the case may be.

(4) Any person aggrieved by any act or decision of the Company Liquidator may apply to the Tribunal, and the Tribunal may confirm, reverse or modify the act or decision complained of and make such further order as it thinks just and proper in the circumstances.

293. Books to be kept by Company Liquidator

(1) The Company Liquidator shall keep proper books in such manner, as may be prescribed, in which he shall cause entries or minutes to be made of proceedings at meetings and of such other matters as may be prescribed.

(2) Any creditor or contributory may, subject to the control of the Tribunal, inspect any such books, personally or through his agent.

294. Audit of Company Liquidator’s accounts

(1) The Company Liquidator shall maintain proper and regular books of account including accounts of receipts and payments made by him in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

(2) The Company Liquidator shall, at such times as may be prescribed but not less than twice in each year during his tenure of office, present to the Tribunal an account of the receipts and payments as such liquidator in the prescribed form in duplicate, which shall be verified by a declaration in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

(3) The Tribunal shall cause the accounts to be audited in such manner as it thinks fit, and for the purpose of the audit, the Company Liquidator shall furnish to the Tribunal with such vouchers and information as the Tribunal may require, and the Tribunal may, at any time, require the production of, and inspect, any books of account kept by the Company Liquidator.

(4) When the accounts of the company have been audited, one copy thereof shall be filed by the Company Liquidator with the Tribunal, and the other copy shall be delivered to the Registrar which shall be open to inspection by any creditor, contributory or person interested.

(5) Where an account referred to in sub-section (4) relates to a Government company, the Company Liquidator shall forward a copy thereof—

(a) to the Central Government, if that Government is a member of the Government company; or

(b) to any State Government, if that Government is a member of the Government company; or

(c) to the Central Government and any State Government, if both the Governments are members of the Government company.

(6) The Company Liquidator shall cause the accounts when audited, or a summary thereof, to be printed, and shall send a printed copy of the accounts or summary thereof by post to every creditor and every contributory: Provided that the Tribunal may dispense with the compliance of the provisions of this sub-section in any case it deems fit.

295. Payment of debts by contributory and extent of set-off

(1) The Tribunal may, at any time after passing of a winding up order, pass an order requiring any contributory for the time being on the list of contributories to pay, in the manner directed by the order, any money due to the company, from him or from the estate of the person whom he represents, exclusive of any money payable by him or the estate by virtue of any call in pursuance of this Act.

(2) The Tribunal, in making an order, under sub-section (1), may,—

(a) in the case of an unlimited company, allow to the contributory, by way of setoff, any money due to him or to the estate which he represents, from the company, on any independent dealing or contract with the company, but not any money due to him as a member of the company in respect of any dividend or profit; and

(b) in the case of a limited company, allow to any director or manager whose liability is unlimited, or to his estate, such set-off.

(3) In the case of any company, whether limited or unlimited, when all the creditors have been paid in full, any money due on any account whatever to a contributory from the company may be allowed to him by way of set-off against any subsequent call.

296. Power of Tribunal to make calls

The Tribunal may, at any time after the passing of a winding up order, and either before or after it has ascertained the sufficiency of the assets of the company,—

(a) make calls on all or any of the contributories for the time being on the list of the contributories, to the extent of their liability, for payment of any money which the Tribunal considers necessary to satisfy the debts and liabilities of the company, and the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves; and

(b) make an order for payment of any calls so made.

297. Adjustment of rights of contributories

The Tribunal shall adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves and distribute any surplus among the persons entitled thereto.

298. Power to order costs

The Tribunal may, in the event of the assets of a company being insufficient to satisfy its liabilities, make an order for the payment out of the assets, of the costs, charges and expenses incurred in the winding up, in such order of priority inter se as the Tribunal thinks just and proper.

299. Power to summon persons suspected of having property of company, etc

(1) The Tribunal may, at any time after the appointment of a provisional liquidator or the passing of a winding up order, summon before it any officer of the company or person known or suspected to have in his possession any property or books or papers, of the company, or known or suspected to be indebted to the company, or any person whom the Tribunal thinks to be capable of giving information concerning the promotion, formation, trade, dealings, property, books or papers, or affairs of the company.

(2) The Tribunal may examine any officer or person so summoned on oath concerning the matters aforesaid, either by word of mouth or on written interrogatories or on affidavit and may, in the first case, reduce his answers to writing and require him to sign them.

(3) The Tribunal may require any officer or person so summoned to produce any books and papers relating to the company in his custody or power, but, where he claims any lien on books or papers produced by him, the production shall be without prejudice to such lien, and the Tribunal shall have power to determine all questions relating to that lien.

(4) The Tribunal may direct the liquidator to file before it a report in respect of debt or property of the company in possession of other persons.

(5) If the Tribunal finds that—

(a) a person is indebted to the company, the Tribunal may order him to pay to the provisional liquidator or, as the case may be, the liquidator at such time and in such manner as the Tribunal may consider just, the amount in which he is indebted, or any part thereof, either in full discharge of the whole amount or not, as the Tribunal thinks fit, with or without costs of the examination;

(b) a person is in possession of any property belonging to the company, the Tribunal may order him to deliver to the provisional liquidator or, as the case may be, the liquidator, that property or any part thereof, at such time, in such manner and on such terms as the Tribunal may consider just.

(6) If any officer or person so summoned fails to appear before the Tribunal at the time appointed without a reasonable cause, the Tribunal may impose an appropriate cost.

(7) Every order made under sub-section (5) shall be executed in the same manner as decrees for the payment of money or for the delivery of property under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

(8) Any person making any payment or delivery in pursuance of an order made under sub-section (5) shall by such payment or delivery be, unless otherwise directed by such order, discharged from all liability whatsoever in respect of such debt or property.

300. Power to order examination of promoters, directors, etc

(1) Where an order has been made for the winding up of a company by the Tribunal, and the Company Liquidator has made a report to the Tribunal under this Act, stating that in his opinion a fraud has been committed by any person in the promotion, formation, business or conduct of affairs of the company since its formation, the Tribunal may, after considering the report, direct that such person or officer shall attend before the Tribunal on a day appointed by it for that purpose, and be examined as to the promotion or formation or the conduct of the business of the company or as to his conduct and dealings as an officer thereof.

(2) The Company Liquidator shall take part in the examination, and for that purpose he or it may, if specially authorised by the Tribunal in that behalf, employ such legal assistance as may be sanctioned by the Tribunal.

(3) The person shall be examined on oath and shall answer all such questions as the Tribunal may put, or allow to be put, to him.

(4) A person ordered to be examined under this section—

(a) shall, before his examination, be furnished at his own cost with a copy of the report of the Company Liquidator; and

(b) may at his own cost employ chartered accountants or company secretaries or cost accountants or legal practitioners entitled to appear before the Tribunal under section 432, who shall be at liberty to put to him such questions as the Tribunal may consider just for the purpose of enabling him to explain or qualify any answers given by him.

(5) If any such person applies to the Tribunal to be exculpated from any charges made or suggested against him, it shall be the duty of the Company Liquidator to appear on the hearing of such application and call the attention of the Tribunal to any matters which appear to the Company Liquidator to be relevant.

(6) If the Tribunal, after considering any evidence given or hearing witnesses called by the Company Liquidator, allows the application made under sub-section (5), the Tribunal may order payment to the applicant of such costs as it may think fit.

(7) Notes of the examination shall be taken down in writing, and shall be read over to or by, and signed by, the person examined, a copy be supplied to him and may thereafter be used in evidence against him, and shall be open to inspection by any creditor or contributory at all reasonable times.

(8) The Tribunal may, if it thinks fit, adjourn the examination from time to time.

(9) An examination under this section may, if the Tribunal so directs, be held before any person or authority authorised by the Tribunal.

(10) The powers of the Tribunal under this section as to the conduct of the examination, but not as to costs, may be exercised by the person or authority before whom the examination is held in pursuance of sub-section (9).

301. Arrest of person trying to leave India or abscond

At any time either before or after passing a winding up order, if the Tribunal is satisfied that a contributory or a person having property, accounts or papers of the company in his possession is about to leave India or otherwise to abscond, or is about to remove or conceal any of his property, for the purpose of evading payment of calls or of avoiding examination respecting the affairs of the company, the Tribunal may cause—

(a) the contributory to be detained until such time as the Tribunal may order; and

(b) his books and papers and movable property to be seized and safely kept until such time as the Tribunal may order.

302. Dissolution of company by Tribunal

(1) When the affairs of a company have been completely wound up, the Company

Liquidator shall make an application to the Tribunal for dissolution of such company.

(2) The Tribunal shall on an application filed by the Company Liquidator under sub-section (1) or when the Tribunal is of the opinion that it is just and reasonable in the circumstances of the case that an order for the dissolution of the company should be made, make an order that the company be dissolved from the date of the order, and the company shall be dissolved accordingly.

(3) A copy of the order shall, within thirty days from the date thereof, be forwarded by the Company Liquidator to the Registrar who shall record in the register relating to the company a minute of the dissolution of the company.

(4) If the Company Liquidator makes a default in forwarding a copy of the order within the period specified in sub-section (3), the Company Liquidator shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which the default continues.

303. Appeals from orders made before commencement of Act

Nothing in this Chapter shall affect the operation or enforcement of any order made by any Court in any proceedings for the winding up of a company immediately before the commencement of this Act and an appeal against such order shall be filed before such authority competent to hear such appeals before such commencement.

304. Circumstances in which company may be wound up voluntarily

A company may be wound up voluntarily,—

(a) if the company in general meeting passes a resolution requiring the company to be wound up voluntarily as a result of the expiry of the period for its duration, if any, fixed by its articles or on the occurrence of any event in respect of which the articles provide that the company should be dissolved; or

(b) if the company passes a special resolution that the company be wound up voluntarily.

305. Declaration of solvency in case of proposal to wind up voluntarily

(1) Where it is proposed to wind up a company voluntarily, its director or directors, or in case the company has more than two directors, the majority of its directors, shall, at a meeting of the Board, make a declaration verified by an affidavit to the effect that they have made a full inquiry into the affairs of the company and they have formed an opinion that the company has no debt or whether it will be able to pay its debts in full from the proceeds of assets sold in voluntary winding up.

(2) A declaration made under sub-section (1) shall have no effect for the purposes of this Act, unless—

(a) it is made within five weeks immediately preceding the date of the passing of the resolution for winding up the company and it is delivered to the Registrar for registration before that date;

(b) it contains a declaration that the company is not being wound up to defraud any person or persons;

(c) it is accompanied by a copy of the report of the auditors of the company prepared in accordance with the provisions of this Act, on the profit and loss account of the company for the period commencing from the date up to which the last such account was prepared and ending with the latest practicable date immediately before the making of the declaration and the balance sheet of the company made out as on that date which would also contain a statement of the assets and liabilities of the company on that date; and

(d) where there are any assets of the company, it is accompanied by a report of the valuation of the assets of the company prepared by a registered valuer.

(3) Where the company is wound up in pursuance of a resolution passed within a period of five weeks after the making of the declaration, but its debts are not paid or provided for in full, it shall be presumed, until the contrary is shown, that the director or directors did not have reasonable grounds for his or their opinion under sub-section (1).

(4) Any director of a company making a declaration under this section without having reasonable grounds for the opinion that the company will be able to pay its debts in full from the proceeds of assets sold in voluntary winding up shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to five years or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees, or with both.

306. Meeting of creditors

(1) The company shall along with the calling of meeting of the company at which the resolution for the voluntary winding up is to be proposed, cause a meeting of its creditors either on the same day or on the next day and shall cause a notice of such meeting to be sent by registered post to the creditors with the notice of the meeting of the company under section 304.

(2) The Board of Directors of the company shall—

(a) cause to be presented a full statement of the position of the affairs of the company together with a list of creditors of the company, if any, copy of declaration under section 305 and the estimated amount of the claims before such meeting; and

(b) appoint one of the directors to preside at the meeting.

(3) Where two-thirds in value of creditors of the company are of the opinion that—

(a) it is in the interest of all parties that the company be wound up voluntarily, the company shall be wound up voluntarily; or

(b) the company may not be able to pay for its debts in full from the proceeds of assets sold in voluntary winding up and pass a resolution that it shall be in the interest of all parties if the company is wound up by the Tribunal in accordance with the provisions of Part I of this Chapter, the company shall within fourteen days thereafter file an application before the Tribunal.

(4) The notice of any resolution passed at a meeting of creditors in pursuance of this section shall be given by the company to the Registrar within ten days of the passing thereof.

(5) If a company contravenes the provisions of this section, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees and the director of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees, or with both.

307. Publication of resolution to wind up voluntarily

(1) Where a company has passed a resolution for voluntary winding up and a resolution under sub-section (3) of section 306 is passed, it shall within fourteen days of the passing of the resolution give notice of the resolution by advertisement in the Official Gazette and also in a newspaper which is in circulation in the district where the registered office or the principal office of the company is situate.

(2) If a company contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such default continues.

306. Meeting of creditors

(1) The company shall along with the calling of meeting of the company at which the resolution for the voluntary winding up is to be proposed, cause a meeting of its creditors either on the same day or on the next day and shall cause a notice of such meeting to be sent by registered post to the creditors with the notice of the meeting of the company under section 304.

(2) The Board of Directors of the company shall—

(a) cause to be presented a full statement of the position of the affairs of the company together with a list of creditors of the company, if any, copy of declaration under section 305 and the estimated amount of the claims before such meeting; and

(b) appoint one of the directors to preside at the meeting.

(3) Where two-thirds in value of creditors of the company are of the opinion that—

(a) it is in the interest of all parties that the company be wound up voluntarily, the company shall be wound up voluntarily; or

(b) the company may not be able to pay for its debts in full from the proceeds of assets sold in voluntary winding up and pass a resolution that it shall be in the interest of all parties if the company is wound up by the Tribunal in accordance with the provisions of Part I of this Chapter, the company shall within fourteen days thereafter file an application before the Tribunal.

(4) The notice of any resolution passed at a meeting of creditors in pursuance of this section shall be given by the company to the Registrar within ten days of the passing thereof.

(5) If a company contravenes the provisions of this section, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees and the director of the company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees, or with both.

307. Publication of resolution to wind up voluntarily

(1) Where a company has passed a resolution for voluntary winding up and a resolution under sub-section (3) of section 306 is passed, it shall within fourteen days of the passing of the resolution give notice of the resolution by advertisement in the Official Gazette and also in a newspaper which is in circulation in the district where the registered office or the principal office of the company is situate.

(2) If a company contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such default continues.

308. Commencement of voluntary winding up

A voluntary winding up shall be deemed to commence on the date of passing of the resolution for voluntary winding up under section 304.

310. Appointment of Company Liquidator

(1) The company in its general meeting, where a resolution of voluntary winding up is passed, shall appoint a Company Liquidator from the panel prepared by the Central Government for the purpose of winding up its affairs and distributing the assets of the company and recommend the fee to be paid to the Company Liquidator.

(2) Where the creditors have passed a resolution for winding up the company under sub-section (3) of section 306, the appointment of the Company Liquidator under this section shall be effective only after it is approved by the majority of creditors in value of the company: Provided that where such creditors do not approve the appointment of such Company Liquidator, creditors shall appoint another Company Liquidator.

(3) The creditors while approving the appointment of Company Liquidator appointed by the company or appointing the Company Liquidator of their own choice, as the case may be, pass suitable resolution with regard to the fee of the Company Liquidator.

(4) On appointment as Company Liquidator, such liquidator shall file a declaration in the prescribed form within seven days of the date of appointment disclosing conflict of interest or lack of independence in respect of his appointment, if any, with the company and the creditors and such obligation shall continue throughout the term of his or its appointment.

311. Power to remove and fill vacancy of Company Liquidator

(1) A Company Liquidator appointed under section 310 may be removed by the company where his appointment has been made by the company and, by the creditors, where the appointment is approved or made by such creditors.

(2) Where a Company Liquidator is sought to be removed under this section, he shall be given a notice in writing stating the grounds of removal from his office by the company or the creditors, as the case may be.

(3) Where three-fourth members of the company or three-fourth of creditors in value, as the case may be, after consideration of the reply, if any, filed by the Company Liquidator, in their meeting decide to remove the Company Liquidator, he shall vacate his office.

(4) If a vacancy occurs by death, resignation, removal or otherwise in the office of any Company Liquidator appointed under section 310, the company or the creditors, as the case may be, fill the vacancy in the manner specified in that section.

312. Notice of appointment of Company Liquidator to be given to Registrar

(1) The company shall give notice to the Registrar of the appointment of a Company Liquidator along with the name and particulars of the Company Liquidator, of every vacancy occurring in the office of Company Liquidator, and of the name of the Company Liquidator appointed to fill every such vacancy within ten days of such appointment or the occurrence of such vacancy.

(2) If a company contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1), the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for every day during which such default continues.

313. Cesser of Board’s powers on appointment of Company Liquidator

On the appointment of a Company Liquidator, all the powers of the Board of Directors and of the managing or whole-time directors and manager, if any, shall cease, except for the purpose of giving notice of such appointment of the Company Liquidator to the Registrar.

314. Powers and duties of Company Liquidator in voluntary winding up

(1) The Company Liquidator shall perform such functions and discharge such duties as may be determined from time to time by the company or the creditors, as the case may be.

(2) The Company Liquidator shall settle the list of contributories, which shall be prima facie evidence of the liability of the persons named therein to be contributories.

(3) The Company Liquidator shall call general meetings of the company for the purpose of obtaining the sanction of the company by ordinary or special resolution, as the case may require, or for any other purpose he may consider necessary.

(4) The Company Liquidator shall maintain regular and proper books of account in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed and the members and creditors and any officer authorised by the Central Government may inspect such books of account.

(5) The Company Liquidator shall prepare quarterly statement of accounts in such form and manner as may be prescribed and file such statement of accounts duly audited within thirty days from the close of each quarter with the Registrar, failing which the Company Liquidator shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which the failure continues.

(6) The Company Liquidator shall pay the debts of the company and shall adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(7) The Company Liquidator shall observe due care and diligence in the discharge of his duties.

(8) If the Company Liquidator fails to comply with the provisions of this section except sub-section (5) he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.

315. Appointment of committees

Where there are no creditors of a company, such company in its general meeting and, where a meeting of creditors is held under section 306, such creditors, as the case may be, may appoint such committees as considered appropriate to supervise the voluntary liquidation and assist the Company Liquidator in discharging his or its functions.

316. Company Liquidator to submit report on progress of winding up

(1) The Company Liquidator shall report quarterly on the progress of winding up of the company in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed to the members and creditors and shall also call a meeting of the members and the creditors as and when necessary but at least one meeting each of creditors and members in every quarter and apprise them of the progress of the winding up of the company in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) If the Company Liquidator fails to comply with the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable, in respect of each such failure, with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.

317. Report of Company Liquidator to Tribunal for examination of persons

(1) Where the Company Liquidator is of the opinion that a fraud has been committed by any person in respect of the company, he shall immediately make a report to the Tribunal and the Tribunal shall, without prejudice to the process of winding up, order for investigation under section 210 and on consideration of the report of such investigation, the Tribunal may pass such order and give such directions under this Chapter as it may consider necessary including the direction that such person shall attend before the Tribunal on a day appointed by it for that purpose and be examined as to the promotion or formation or the conduct of the business of the company or as to his conduct and dealings as officer thereof or otherwise.

(2) The provisions of section 300 shall mutatis mutandis apply in relation to any examination directed under sub-section (1).

318. Final meeting and dissolution of company

(1) As soon as the affairs of a company are fully wound up, the Company Liquidator shall prepare a report of the winding up showing that the property and assets of the company have been disposed of and its debt fully discharged or discharged to the satisfaction of the creditors and thereafter call a general meeting of the company for the purpose of laying the final winding up accounts before it and giving any explanation therefor.

(2) The meeting referred to in sub-section (1) shall be called by the Company Liquidator in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

(3) If the majority of the members of the company after considering the report of the Company Liquidator are satisfied that the company shall be wound up, they may pass a resolution for its dissolution.

(4) Within two weeks after the meeting, the Company Liquidator shall—

(a) send to the Registrar—

(i) a copy of the final winding up accounts of the company and shall make a return in respect of each meeting and of the date thereof; and

(ii) copies of the resolutions passed in the meetings; and

(b) file an application along with his report under sub-section (1) in such manner as may be prescribed along with the books and papers of the company relating to the winding up, before the Tribunal for passing an order of dissolution of the company.

(5) If the Tribunal is satisfied, after considering the report of the Company Liquidator that the process of winding up has been just and fair, the Tribunal shall pass an order dissolving the company within sixty days of the receipt of the application under sub-section (4).

(6) The Company Liquidator shall file a copy of the order under sub-section (5) with the Registrar within thirty days.

(7) The Registrar, on receiving the copy of the order passed by the Tribunal under subsection

(5), shall forthwith publish a notice in the Official Gazette that the company is dissolved.

(8) If the Company Liquidator fails to comply with the provisions of this section, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees.

319. Power of Company Liquidator to accept shares, etc., as consideration for sale of property of company

(1) Where a company (the transferor company) is proposed to be, or is in the course of being, wound up voluntarily and the whole or any part of its business or property is proposed to be transferred or sold to another company (the transferee company), the Company Liquidator of the transferor company may, with the sanction of a special resolution of the company conferring on him either a general authority or an authority in respect of any particular arrangement,—

(a) receive, by way of compensation wholly or in part for the transfer or sale of shares, policies, or other like interest in the transferee company, for distribution among the members of the transferor company; or

(b) enter into any other arrangement whereby the members of the transferor company may, in lieu of receiving cash, shares, policies or other like interest or in addition thereto, participate in the profits of, or receive any other benefit from, the transferee company: Provided that no such arrangement shall be entered into without the consent of the secured creditors.

(2) Any transfer, sale or other arrangement in pursuance of this section shall be binding on the members of the transferor company.

(3) Any member of the transferor company who did not vote in favour of the special resolution and expresses his dissent therefrom in writing addressed to the Company Liquidator, and left at the registered office of the company within seven days after the passing of the resolution, may require the liquidator either—

(a) to abstain from carrying the resolution into effect; or

(b) to purchase his interest at a price to be determined by agreement or the registered valuer.

(4) If the Company Liquidator elects to purchase the member’s interest, the purchase money, raised by him in such manner as may be determined by a special resolution, shall be paid before the company is dissolved.

320. Distribution of property of company

Subject to the provisions of this Act as to overriding preferential payments under section 326, the assets of a company shall, on its winding up, be applied in satisfaction of its liabilities pari passu and, subject to such application, shall, unless the articles otherwise provide, be distributed among the members according to their rights and interests in the company.

321. Arrangement when binding on company and creditors

(1) Any arrangement other than the arrangement referred to in section 319 entered into between the company which is about to be, or is in the course of being wound up and its creditors shall be binding on the company and on the creditors if it is sanctioned by a special resolution of the company and acceded to by the creditors who hold three-fourths in value of the total amount due to all the creditors of the company.

(2) Any creditor or contributory may, within three weeks from the completion of the arrangement, apply to the Tribunal and the Tribunal may thereupon amend, vary, confirm or set aside the arrangement.

322. Power to apply to Tribunal to have questions determined, etc

(1) The Company Liquidator or any contributory or creditor may apply to the

Tribunal—

(a) to determine any question arising in the course of the winding up of a company; or

(b) to exercise as respects the enforcing of calls, the staying of proceedings or any other matter, all or any of the powers which the Tribunal might exercise if the company were being wound up by the Tribunal.

(2) The Company Liquidator or any creditor or contributory may apply to the Tribunal for an order setting aside any attachment, distress or execution put into force against the estate or effects of the company after the commencement of the winding up.

(3) The Tribunal, if satisfied on an application under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) that the determination of the question or the required exercise of power or the order applied for will be just and fair, may allow the application on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit or may make such other order on the application as it thinks fit.

(4) A copy of an order staying the proceedings in the winding up, made under this section, shall forthwith be forwarded by the company, or otherwise as may be prescribed, to the Registrar, who shall make a minute of the order in his books relating to the company.

323. Costs of voluntary winding up

All costs, charges and expenses properly incurred in the winding up, including the fee of the Company Liquidator, shall, subject to the rights of secured creditors, if any, be payable out of the assets of the company in priority to all other claims.

324. Debts of all descriptions to be admitted to proof

In every winding up (subject, in the case of insolvent companies, to the application in accordance with the provisions of this Act or of the law of insolvency), all debts payable on a contingency, and all claims against the company, present or future, certain or contingent, ascertained or sounding only in damages, shall be admissible to proof against the company, a just estimate being made, so far as possible, of the value of such debts or claims as may be subject to any contingency, or may sound only in damages, or for some other reason may not bear a certain value.

325. Application of insolvency rules in winding up of insolvent companies

(1) In the winding up of an insolvent company, the same rules shall prevail and be observed with regard to—

(a) debts provable;

(b) the valuation of annuities and future and contingent liabilities; and

(c) the respective rights of secured and unsecured creditors, as are in force for the time being under the law of insolvency with respect to the estates of persons adjudged insolvent: Provided that the security of every secured creditor shall be deemed to be subject to a pari passu charge in favour of the workmen to the extent of the workmen’s portion therein, and, where a secured creditor, instead of relinquishing his security and proving his debts, opts to realise his security,—

(i) the liquidator shall be entitled to represent the workmen and enforce such charge;

(ii) any amount realised by the liquidator by way of enforcement of such charge shall be applied rateably for the discharge of workmen’s dues; and

(iii) so much of the debts due to such secured creditor as could not be realized by him or the amount of the workmen’s portion in his security, whichever is less, shall rank pari passu with the workmen’s dues for the purposes of section 326.

(2) All persons under sub-section (1) shall be entitled to prove and receive dividends out of the assets of the company under winding up, and make such claims against the company as they respectively are entitled to make by virtue of this section: Provided that if a secured creditor, instead of relinquishing his security and proving his debts, proceeds to realise his security, he shall be liable to pay his portion of the expenses incurred by the liquidator, including a provisional liquidator, if any, for the preservation of the security before its realisation by the secured creditor.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section, the portion of expenses incurred by the liquidator for the preservation of a security which the secured creditor shall be liable to pay shall be the whole of the expenses less an amount which bears to such expenses the same proportion as the workmen’s portion in relation to the security bears to the value of the security.

(3) For the purposes of this section, section 326 and section 327,—

(a) “workmen’’, in relation to a company, means the employees of the company, being workmen within the meaning of clause (s) of section 2 of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947;

(b) “workmen’s dues’’, in relation to a company, means the aggregate of the following sums due from the company to its workmen, namely:—

(i) all wages or salary including wages payable for time or piece work and salary earned wholly or in part by way of commission of any workman in respect of services rendered to the company and any compensation payable to any workman under any of the provisions of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947;

(ii) all accrued holiday remuneration becoming payable to any workman or, in the case of his death, to any other person in his right on the termination of his employment before or by the effect of the winding up order or resolution;

(iii) unless the company is being wound up voluntarily merely for the purposes of reconstruction or amalgamation with another company or unless the company has, at the commencement of the winding up, under such a contract with insurers as is mentioned in section 14 of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923, rights capable of being transferred to and vested in the workmen, all amount due in respect of any compensation or liability for compensation under the said

Act in respect of the death or disablement of any workman of the company;

(iv) all sums due to any workman from the provident fund, the pension fund, the gratuity fund or any other fund for the welfare of the workmen, maintained by the company;

(c) “workmen’s portion’’, in relation to the security of any secured creditor of a company, means the amount which bears to the value of the security the same proportion as the amount of the workmen’s dues bears to the aggregate of the amount of workmen’s dues and the amount of the debts due to the secured creditors.

Illustration

The value of the security of a secured creditor of a company is Rs. 1,00,000. The total amount of the workmen’s dues is Rs. 1,00,000. The amount of the debts due from the company to its secured creditors is Rs. 3,00,000. The aggregate of the amount of workmen’s dues and the amount of debts due to secured creditors is Rs. 4,00,000. The workmen’s portion of the security is, therefore, one-fourth of the value of the security, that is Rs. 25,000.

327. Preferential payments

(1) In a winding up, subject to the provisions of section 326, there shall be paid in priority to all other debts,—

(a) all revenues, taxes, cesses and rates due from the company to the Central Government or a State Government or to a local authority at the relevant date, and having become due and payable within the twelve months immediately before that date;

(b) all wages or salary including wages payable for time or piece work and salary earned wholly or in part by way of commission of any employee in respect of services rendered to the company and due for a period not exceeding four months within the twelve months immediately before the relevant date, subject to the condition that the amount payable under this clause to any workman shall not exceed such amount as may be notified;

(c) all accrued holiday remuneration becoming payable to any employee, or in the case of his death, to any other person claiming under him, on the termination of his employment before, or by the winding up order, or, as the case may be, the dissolution of the company;

(d) unless the company is being wound up voluntarily merely for the purposes of reconstruction or amalgamation with another company, all amount due in respect of contributions payable during the period of twelve months immediately before the relevant date by the company as the employer of persons under the Employees’ State

Insurance Act, 1948 or any other law for the time being in force;

(e) unless the company has, at the commencement of winding up, under such a contract with any insurer as is mentioned in section 14 of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923, rights capable of being transferred to and vested in the workmen, all amount due in respect of any compensation or liability for compensation under the said Act in respect of the death or disablement of any employee of the company: Provided that where any compensation under the said Act is a weekly payment, the amount payable under this clause shall be taken to be the amount of the lump sum for which such weekly payment could, if redeemable, be redeemed, if the employer has made an application under that Act;

(f) all sums due to any employee from the provident fund, the pension fund, the gratuity fund or any other fund for the welfare of the employees, maintained by the company; and

(g) the expenses of any investigation held in pursuance of sections 213 and 216, in so far as they are payable by the company.

(2) Where any payment has been made to any employee of a company on account of wages or salary or accrued holiday remuneration, himself or, in the case of his death, to any other person claiming through him, out of money advanced by some person for that purpose, the person by whom the money was advanced shall, in a winding up, have a right of priority in respect of the money so advanced and paid-up to the amount by which the sum in respect of which the employee or other person in his right would have been entitled to priority in the winding up has been reduced by reason of the payment having been made.

(3) The debts enumerated in this section shall—

(a) rank equally among themselves and be paid in full, unless the assets are insufficient to meet them, in which case they shall abate in equal proportions; and

(b) so far as the assets of the company available for payment to general creditors are insufficient to meet them, have priority over the claims of holders of debentures under any floating charge created by the company, and be paid accordingly out of any property comprised in or subject to that charge.

(4) Subject to the retention of such sums as may be necessary for the costs and expenses of the winding up, the debts under this section shall be discharged forthwith so far as the assets are sufficient to meet them, and in the case of the debts to which priority is given under clause (d) of sub-section (1), formal proof thereof shall not be required except in mso far as may be otherwise prescribed.

(5) In the event of a landlord or other person distraining or having distrained on any goods or effects of the company within three months immediately before the date of a winding up order, the debts to which priority is given under this section shall be a first charge on the goods or effects so distrained on or the proceeds of the sale thereof: Provided that, in respect of any money paid under any such charge, the landlord or other person shall have the same rights of priority as the person to whom the payment is made.

(6) Any remuneration in respect of a period of holiday or of absence from work on medical grounds through sickness or other good cause shall be deemed to be wages in respect of services rendered to the company during that period.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(a) the expression “accrued holiday remuneration” includes, in relation to any person, all sums which, by virtue either of his contract of employment or of any enactment including any order made or direction given thereunder, are payable on account of the remuneration which would, in the ordinary course, have become payable to him in respect of a period of holiday, had his employment with the company continued until he became entitled to be allowed the holiday;

(b) the expression “employee” does not include a workman; and

(c) the expression “relevant date” means—

(i) in the case of a company being wound up by the Tribunal, the date of appointment or first appointment of a provisional liquidator, or if no such appointment was made, the date of the winding up order, unless, in either case, the company had commenced to be wound up voluntarily before that date; and

(ii) in any other case, the date of the passing of the resolution for the voluntary winding up of the company.

328. Fraudulent preference

(1) Where a company has given preference to a person who is one of the creditors of the company or a surety or guarantor for any of the debts or other liabilities of the company, and the company does anything or suffers anything done which has the effect of putting that person into a position which, in the event of the company going into liquidation, will be better than the position he would have been in if that thing had not been done prior to six months of making winding up application, the Tribunal, if satisfied that, such transaction is a fraudulent preference may order as it may think fit for restoring the position to what it would have been if the company had not given that preference.

(2) If the Tribunal is satisfied that there is a preference transfer of property, movable or immovable, or any delivery of goods, payment, execution made, taken or done by or against a company within six months before making winding up application, the Tribunal may order as it may think fit and may declare such transaction invalid and restore the position.

329. Transfers not in good faith to be void

Any transfer of property, movable or immovable, or any delivery of goods, made by a company, not being a transfer or delivery made in the ordinary course of its business or in favour of a purchaser or encumbrance in good faith and for valuable consideration, if made within a period of one year before the presentation of a petition for winding up by the Tribunal or the passing of a resolution for voluntary winding up of the company, shall be void against the Company Liquidator.

330. Certain transfers to be void

Any transfer or assignment by a company of all its properties or assets to trustees for the benefit of all its creditors shall be void.

331. Liabilities and rights of certain persons fraudulently preferred

(1) Where a company is being wound up and anything made, taken or done after the commencement of this Act is invalid under section 328 as a fraudulent preference of a person interested in property mortgaged or charged to secure the company’s debt, then, without prejudice to any rights or liabilities arising, apart from this provision, the person preferred shall be subject to the same liabilities, and shall have the same rights, as if he had undertaken to be personally liable as a surety for the debt, to the extent of the mortgage or charge on the property or the value of his interest, whichever is less.

(2) The value of the interest of the person preferred under sub-section (1) shall be determined as at the date of the transaction constituting the fraudulent preference, as if the interest were free of all encumbrances other than those to which the mortgage or charge for the debt of the company was then subject.

(3) On an application made to the Tribunal with respect to any payment on the ground that the payment was a fraudulent preference of a surety or guarantor, the Tribunal shall have jurisdiction to determine any questions with respect to the payment arising between the person to whom the payment was made and the surety or guarantor and to grant relief in respect thereof, notwithstanding that it is not necessary so to do for the purposes of the winding up, and for that purpose, may give leave to bring in the surety or guarantor as a third party as in the case of a suit for the recovery of the sum paid.

(4) The provisions of sub-section (3) shall apply mutatis mutandis in relation to transactions other than payment of money.

332. Effect of floating charge

Where a company is being wound up, a floating charge on the undertaking or property of the company created within the twelve months immediately preceding the commencement of the winding up, shall, unless it is proved that the company immediately after the creation of the charge was solvent, be invalid, except for the amount of any cash paid to the company at the time of, or subsequent to the creation of, and in consideration for, the charge, together with interest on that amount at the rate of five per cent. per annum or such other rate as may be notified by the Central Government in this behalf.

333. Disclaimer of onerous property

(1) Where any part of the property of a company which is being wound up consists of—

(a) land of any tenure, burdened with onerous covenants;

(b) shares or stocks in companies;

(c) any other property which is not saleable or is not readily saleable by reason of the possessor thereof being bound either to the performance of any onerous act or to the payment of any sum of money; or

(d) unprofitable contracts, the Company Liquidator may, notwithstanding that he has endeavoured to sell or has taken possession of the property or exercised any act of ownership in relation thereto or done anything in pursuance of the contract, with the leave of the Tribunal and subject to the provisions of this section, by writing signed by him, at any time within twelve months after the commencement of the winding up or such extended period as may be allowed by the Tribunal, disclaim the property: Provided that where the Company Liquidator had not become aware of the existence of any such property within one month from the commencement of the winding up, the power of disclaiming the property may be exercised at any time within twelve months after he has become aware thereof or such extended period as may be allowed by the Tribunal.

(2) The disclaimer shall operate to determine, as from the date of disclaimer, the rights, interest and liabilities of the company in or in respect of the property disclaimed, but shall not, except so far as is necessary for the purpose of releasing the company and the property of the company from liability, affect the rights, interest or liabilities of any other person.

(3) The Tribunal, before or on granting leave to disclaim, may require such notices to be given to persons interested, and impose such terms as a condition of granting leave, and make such other order in the matter as the Tribunal considers just and proper.

(4) The Company Liquidator shall not be entitled to disclaim any property in any case where an application in writing has been made to him by any person interested in the property requiring him to decide whether he will or will not disclaim and the Company Liquidator has not, within a period of twenty-eight days after the receipt of the application or such extended period as may be allowed by the Tribunal, give notice to the applicant that he intends to apply to the Tribunal for leave to disclaim, and in case the property is under a contract, if the Company Liquidator after such an application as aforesaid does not within the said period or extended period disclaim the contract, he shall be deemed to have adopted it.

(5) The Tribunal may, on the application of any person who is, as against the Company Liquidator, entitled to the benefit or subject to the burden of a contract made with the company, make an order rescinding the contract on such terms as to payment by or to either party of damages for the non-performance of the contract, or otherwise as the Tribunal considers just and proper, and any damages payable under the order to any such person may be proved by him as a debt in the winding up.

(6) The Tribunal may, on an application by any person who either claims any interest in any disclaimed property or is under any liability not discharged under this Act in respect of any disclaimed property, and after hearing any such persons as it thinks fit, make an order for the vesting of the property in, or the delivery of the property to, any person entitled thereto or to whom it may seem just that the property should be delivered by way of compensation for such liability as aforesaid, or a trustee for him, and on such terms as the Tribunal considers just and proper, and on any such vesting order being made, the property comprised therein shall vest accordingly in the person named therein in that behalf without any conveyance or assignment for the purpose: Provided that where the property disclaimed is of a leasehold nature, the Tribunal shall not make a vesting order in favour of any person claiming under the company, whether as under-lessee or as mortgagee or holder of a charge by way of demise, except upon the terms of making that person—

(a) subject to the same liabilities and obligations as those to which the company was subject under the lease in respect of the property at the commencement of the winding up; or

(b) if the Tribunal thinks fit, subject only to the same liabilities and obligations as if the lease had been assigned to that person at that date, and in either event as if the lease had comprised only the property comprised in the vesting order, and any mortgagee or under-lessee declining to accept a vesting order upon such terms shall be excluded from all interest in, and security upon the property, and, if there is no person claiming under the company who is willing to accept an order upon such terms, the Tribunal shall have power to vest the estate and interest of the company in the property in any person liable, either personally or in a representative character, and either alone or jointly with the company, to perform the covenants of the lessee in the lease, free and discharged from all estates, encumbrances and interests created therein by the company.

(7) Any person affected by the operation of a disclaimer under this section shall be deemed to be a creditor of the company to the amount of the compensation or damages payable in respect of such effect, and may accordingly prove the amount as a debt in the winding up.

334. Transfers, etc., after commencement of winding up to be void

(1) In the case of a voluntary winding up, any transfer of shares in the company, not being a transfer made to or with the sanction of the Company Liquidator, and any alteration in the status of the members of the company, made after the commencement of the winding up, shall be void.

(2) In the case of a winding up by the Tribunal, any disposition of the property, including actionable claims, of the company, and any transfer of shares in the company or alteration in the status of its members, made after the commencement of the winding up, shall, unless the Tribunal otherwise orders, be void.

335. Certain attachments, executions, etc., in winding up by Tribunal to be void

(1) Where any company is being wound up by the Tribunal,—

(a) any attachment, distress or execution put in force, without leave of the Tribunal against the estate or effects of the company, after the commencement of the winding up; or

(b) any sale held, without leave of the Tribunal of any of the properties or effects of the company, after such commencement, shall be void.

(2) Nothing in this section shall apply to any proceedings for the recovery of any tax or impost or any dues payable to the Government.

336. Offences by officers of companies in liquidation

(1) If any person, who is or has been an officer of a company which, at the time of the commission of the alleged offence, is being wound up, whether by the Tribunal or voluntarily, or which is subsequently ordered to be wound up by the Tribunal or which subsequently passes a resolution for voluntary winding up,—

(a) does not, to the best of his knowledge and belief, fully and truly disclose to the Company Liquidator all the property, movable and immovable, of the company, and how and to whom and for what consideration and when the company disposed of any part thereof, except such part as has been disposed of in the ordinary course of the business of the company;

(b) does not deliver up to the Company Liquidator, or as he directs, all such part of the movable and immovable property of the company as is in his custody or under his control and which he is required by law to deliver up;

(c) does not deliver up to the Company Liquidator, or as he directs, all such books and papers of the company as are in his custody or under his control and which he is required by law to deliver up;

(d) within the twelve months immediately before the commencement of the winding up or at any time thereafter,—

(i) conceals any part of the property of the company to the value of one thousand rupees or more, or conceals any debt due to or from the company;

(ii) fraudulently removes any part of the property of the company to the value of one thousand rupees or more;

(iii) conceals, destroys, mutilates or falsifies, or is privy to the concealment, destruction, mutilation or falsification of, any book or paper affecting or relating to, the property or affairs of the company;

(iv) makes, or is privy to the making of, any false entry in any book or paper affecting or relating to, the property or affairs of the company;

(v) fraudulently parts with, alters or makes any omission in, or is privy to the fraudulent parting with, altering or making of any omission in, any book or paper affecting or relating to the property or affairs of the company;

(vi) by any false representation or other fraud, obtains on credit, for or on behalf of the company, any property which the company does not subsequently pay for;

(vii) under the false pretence that the company is carrying on its business, obtains on credit, for or on behalf of the company, any property which the company does not subsequently pay for; or

(viii) pawns, pledges or disposes of any property of the company which has been obtained on credit and has not been paid for, unless such pawning, pledging or disposing of the property is in the ordinary course of business of the company;

(e) makes any material omission in any statement relating to the affairs of the company;

(f) knowing or believing that a false debt has been proved by any person under the winding up, fails for a period of one month to inform the Company Liquidator thereof;

(g) after the commencement of the winding up, prevents the production of any book or paper affecting or relating to the property or affairs of the company;

(h) after the commencement of the winding up or at any meeting of the creditors of the company within the twelve months next before the commencement of the winding up, attempts to account for any part of the property of the company by fictitious losses or expenses; or

(i) is guilty of any false representation or fraud for the purpose of obtaining the consent of the creditors of the company or any of them, to an agreement with reference to the affairs of the company or to the winding up, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to five years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees: Provided that it shall be a good defence if the accused proves that he had no intent to defraud or to conceal the true state of affairs of the company or to defeat the law.

(2) Where any person pawns, pledges or disposes of any property in circumstances which amount to an offence under sub-clause (viii) of clause (d) of sub-section (1), every person who takes in pawn or pledge or otherwise receives the property, knowing it to be pawned, pledged, or disposed of in such circumstances as aforesaid, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to five years and with fine which shall not be less than three lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression “officer” includes any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of the company have been accustomed to act.

337. Penalty for frauds by officers

If any person, being at the time of the commission of the alleged offence an officer of a company which is subsequently ordered to be wound up by the Tribunal or which subsequently passes a resolution for voluntary winding up,—

(a) has, by false pretences or by means of any other fraud, induced any person to give credit to the company;

(b) with intent to defraud creditors of the company or any other person, has made or caused to be made any gift or transfer of, or charge on, or has caused or connived at the levying of any execution against, the property of the company; or

(c) with intent to defraud creditors of the company, has concealed or removed any part of the property of the company since the date of any unsatisfied judgment or order for payment of money obtained against the company or within two months before that date, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees.

338. Liability where proper accounts not kept

(1) Where a company is being wound up, if it is shown that proper books of account were not kept by the company throughout the period of two years immediately preceding the commencement of the winding up, or the period between the incorporation of the company and the commencement of the winding up, whichever is shorter, every officer of the company who is in default shall, unless he shows that he acted honestly and that in the circumstances in which the business of the company was carried on, the default was excusable, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), it shall be deemed that proper books of account have not been kept in the case of any company,—

(a) if such books of account as are necessary to exhibit and explain the transactions and financial position of the business of the company, including books containing entries made from day-to-day in sufficient detail of all cash received and all cash paid, have not been kept; and

(b) where the business of the company has involved dealings in goods, statements of the annual stock takings and, except in the case of goods sold by way of ordinary retail trade, of all goods sold and purchased, showing the goods and the buyers and the sellers thereof in sufficient detail to enable those goods and those buyers and sellers to be identified, have not been kept.

339. Liability for fraudulent conduct of business

(1) If in the course of the winding up of a company, it appears that any business of the company has been carried on with intent to defraud creditors of the company or any other persons or for any fraudulent purpose, the Tribunal, on the application of the Official Liquidator, or the Company Liquidator or any creditor or contributory of the company, may, if it thinks it proper so to do, declare that any person, who is or has been a director, manager, or officer of the company or any persons who were knowingly parties to the carrying on of the business in the manner aforesaid shall be personally responsible, without any limitation of liability, for all or any of the debts or other liabilities of the company as the Tribunal may direct: Provided that on the hearing of an application under this sub-section, the Official Liquidator or the Company Liquidator, as the case may be, may himself give evidence or call witnesses.

(2) Where the Tribunal makes any such declaration, it may give such further directions as it thinks proper for the purpose of giving effect to that declaration and, in particular,—

(a) make provision for making the liability of any such person under the declaration a charge on any debt or obligation due from the company to him, or on any mortgage or charge or any interest in any mortgage or charge on any assets of the company held by or vested in him, or any person on his behalf, or any person claiming as assignee from or through the person liable or any person acting on his behalf;

(b) make such further order as may be necessary for the purpose of enforcing any charge imposed under this sub-section.

(3) Where any business of a company is carried on with such intent or for such purpose as is mentioned in sub-section (1), every person who was knowingly a party to the carrying on of the business in the manner aforesaid, shall be liable for action under section 447.

(4) This section shall apply, notwithstanding that the person concerned may be punishable under any other law for the time being in force in respect of the matters on the ground of which the declaration is to be made.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(a) the expression “assignee” includes any person to whom or in whose favour, by the directions of the person liable, the debt, obligation, mortgage or charge was created, issued or transferred or the interest was created, but does not include an assignee for valuable consideration, not including consideration by way of marriage, given in good faith and without notice of any of the matters on the ground of which the declaration is made;

(b) the expression “officer” includes any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the directors of the company have been accustomed to act.

340. Power of Tribunal to assess damages against delinquent directors, etc

(1) If in the course of winding up of a company, it appears that any person who has taken part in the promotion or formation of the company, or any person, who is or has been a director, manager, Company Liquidator or officer of the company—

(a) has misapplied, or retained, or become liable or accountable for, any money or property of the company; or

(b) has been guilty of any misfeasance or breach of trust in relation to the company, the Tribunal may, on the application of the Official Liquidator, or the Company Liquidator, or of any creditor or contributory, made within the period specified in that behalf in sub-section

(2), inquire into the conduct of the person, director, manager, Company Liquidator or officer aforesaid, and order him to repay or restore the money or property or any part thereof respectively, with interest at such rate as the Tribunal considers just and proper, or to contribute such sum to the assets of the company by way of compensation in respect of the misapplication, retainer, misfeasance or breach of trust, as the Tribunal considers just and proper.

(2) An application under sub-section (1) shall be made within five years from the date of the winding up order, or of the first appointment of the Company Liquidator in the winding up, or of the misapplication, retainer, misfeasance or breach of trust, as the case may be, whichever is longer.

(3) This section shall apply, notwithstanding that the matter is one for which the person concerned may be criminally liable.

341. Liability under sections 339 and 340 to extend to partners or directors in firms or companies

Where a declaration under section 339 or an order under section 340 is made in respect of a firm or body corporate, the Tribunal shall also have power to make a declaration under section 339, or pass an order under section 340, as the case may be, in respect of any person who was at the relevant time a partner in that firm or a director of that body corporate.

342. Prosecution of delinquent officers and members of company

(1) If it appears to the Tribunal in the course of a winding up by the Tribunal, that any person, who is or has been an officer, or any member, of the company has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company, the Tribunal may, either on the application of any person interested in the winding up or suo motu, direct the liquidator to prosecute the offender or to refer the matter to the Registrar.

(2) If it appears to the Company Liquidator in the course of a voluntary winding up that any person, who is or has been an officer, or any member, of the company has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company under this Act, he shall forthwith report the matter to the Registrar and shall furnish to him such information and give to him such access to and facilities for inspecting and taking copies of any books and papers, being information or books and papers in the possession or under the control of the Company Liquidator and relating to the matter in question, as the Registrar may require.

(3) Where any report is made under sub-section (2) to the Registrar,—

(a) if he thinks fit, he may apply to the Central Government for an order to make further inquiry into the affairs of the company by any person designated by him and for conferring on such person all the powers of investigation as are provided under this Act;

(b) if he considers that the case is one in which a prosecution ought to be instituted, he shall report the matter to the Central Government, and that Government may, after taking such legal advice as it thinks fit, direct the Registrar to institute prosecution: Provided that no report shall be made by the Registrar under this clause without first giving the accused person a reasonable opportunity of making a statement in writing to the Registrar and of being heard thereon.

(4) If it appears to the Tribunal in the course of a voluntary winding up that any person, who is or has been an officer, or any member, of the company has been guilty as aforesaid, and that no report with respect to the matter has been made by the Company Liquidator to the Registrar under sub-section (2), the Tribunal may, on the application of any person interested in the winding up or suo motu, direct the Company Liquidator to make such a report, and on a report being made, the provisions of this section shall have effect as though the report had been made in pursuance of the provisions of sub-section (2).

(5) When any prosecution is instituted under this section, it shall be the duty of the liquidator and of every person, who is or has been an officer and agent of the company to give all assistance in connection with the prosecution which he is reasonably able to give.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “agent”, in relation to a company, shall include any banker or legal adviser of the company and any person employed by the company as auditor.

(6) If a person fails or neglects to give assistance required by sub-section (5), he shall be liable to pay fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees.

343. Company Liquidator to exercise certain powers subject to sanction

(1) The Company Liquidator may—

(a) with the sanction of the Tribunal, when the company is being wound up by the Tribunal; and

(b) with the sanction of a special resolution of the company and prior approval of the Tribunal, in the case of a voluntary winding up,—

(i) pay any class of creditors in full;

(ii) make any compromise or arrangement with creditors or persons claiming to be creditors, or having or alleging themselves to have any claim, present or future, certain or contingent, against the company, or whereby the company may be rendered liable; or

(iii) compromise any call or liability to call, debt, and liability capable of resulting in a debt, and any claim, present or future, certain or contingent, ascertained or sounding only in damages, subsisting or alleged to subsist between the company and a contributory or alleged contributory or other debtor or person apprehending liability to the company, and all questions in any way relating to or affecting the assets or liabilities or the winding up of the company, on such terms as may be agreed, and take any security for the discharge of any such call, debt, liability or claim, and give a complete discharge in respect thereof.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), in the case of a winding up by the Tribunal, the Central Government may make rules to provide that the Company Liquidator may, under such circumstances, if any, and subject to such conditions, restrictions and limitations, if any, as may be prescribed, exercise any of the powers referred to in subclause

(ii) or sub-clause (iii) of clause (b) of sub-section (1) without the sanction of the Tribunal.

(3) Any creditor or contributory may apply in the manner prescribed to the Tribunal with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of powers by the Company Liquidator under this section, and the Tribunal shall after giving a reasonable opportunity to such applicant and the Company Liquidator, pass such orders as it may think fit.

344. Statement that company is in liquidation

(1) Where a company is being wound up, whether by the Tribunal or voluntarily, every invoice, order for goods or business letter issued by or on behalf of the company or a Company Liquidator of the company, or a receiver or manager of the property of the company, being a document on or in which the name of the company appears, shall contain a statement that the company is being wound up.

(2) If a company contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1), the company, and every officer of the company, the Company Liquidator and any receiver or manager, who will fully authorises or permits the non-compliance, shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees.

345. Books and papers of company to be evidence

Where a company is being wound up, all books and papers of the company and of the Company Liquidator shall, as between the contributories of the company, be prima facie evidence of the truth of all matters purporting to be recorded therein.

346. Inspection of books and papers by creditors and contributories

(1) At any time after the making of an order for the winding up of a company by the Tribunal, any creditor or contributory of the company may inspect the books and papers of the company only in accordance with, and subject to such rules as may be prescribed.

(2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall exclude or restrict any rights conferred by any law for the time being in force—

(a) on the Central Government or a State Government;

(b) on any authority or officer thereof; or

(c) on any person acting under the authority of any such Government or of any such authority or officer.

347. Disposal of books and papers of company

(1) When the affairs of a company have been completely wound up and it is about to be dissolved, its books and papers and those of the Company Liquidator may be disposed of as follows:—

(a) in the case of winding up by the Tribunal, in such manner as the Tribunal directs; and

(b) in the case of voluntary winding up, in such manner as the company by special resolution with the prior approval of the creditors direct.

(2) After the expiry of five years from the dissolution of the company, no responsibility shall devolve on the company, the Company Liquidator, or any person to whom the custody of the books and papers has been entrusted, by reason of any book or paper not being forthcoming to any person claiming to be interested therein.

(3) The Central Government may, by rules,—

(a) prevent for such period as it thinks proper the destruction of the books and papers of a company which has been wound up and of its Company Liquidator; and

(b) enable any creditor or contributory of the company to make representations to the Central Government in respect of the matters specified in clause (a) and to appeal to the Tribunal from any order which may be made by the Central Government in the matter.

(4) If any person acts in contravention of any rule framed or an order made under sub-section (3), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees, or with both.

348. Information as to pending liquidations

(1) If the winding up of a company is not concluded within one year after its commencement, the Company Liquidator shall, unless he is exempted from so doing either wholly or in part by the Central Government, within two months of the expiry of such year and thereafter until the winding up is concluded, at intervals of not more than one year or at such shorter intervals, if any, as may be prescribed, file a statement in such form containing such particulars as may be prescribed, duly audited, by a person qualified to act as auditor of the company, with respect to the proceedings in, and position of, the liquidation,—

(a) in the case of a winding up by the Tribunal, with the Tribunal; and

(b) in the case of a voluntary winding up, with the Registrar: Provided that no such audit as is referred to in this sub-section shall be necessary where the provisions of section 294 apply.

(2) When the statement is filed with the Tribunal under clause (a) of sub-section (1), a copy shall simultaneously be filed with the Registrar and shall be kept by him along with the other records of the company.

(3) Where a statement referred to in sub-section (1) relates to a Government company in liquidation, the Company Liquidator shall forward a copy thereof—

(a) to the Central Government, if that Government is a member of the Government company;

(b) to any State Government, if that Government is a member of the Government company; or

(c) to the Central Government and any State Government, if both the Governments are members of the Government company.

(4) Any person stating himself in writing to be a creditor or contributory of the company shall be entitled, by himself or by his agent, at all reasonable times, on payment of the prescribed fee, to inspect the statement referred to in sub-section (1), and to receive a copy there of or an extract there from.

(5) Any person fraudulently stating himself to be a creditor or contributory under subsection

(4) shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence under section 182 of the Indian Penal Code, and shall, on the application of the Company Liquidator, be punishable accordingly.

(6) If a Company Liquidator contravenes the provisions of this section, the Company Liquidator shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which the failure continues.

(7) If a Company Liquidator makes wilful default in causing the statement referred to in sub-section (1) audited by a person who is not qualified to act as an auditor of the company, the Company Liquidator shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

349. Official Liquidator to make payments into public account of India

Every Official Liquidator shall, in such manner and at such times as may be prescribed, pay the monies received by him as Official Liquidator of any company, into the public account of India in the Reserve Bank of India.

350. Company Liquidator to deposit monies into scheduled bank

(1) Every Company Liquidator of a company shall, in such manner and at such times as may be prescribed, deposit the monies received by him in his capacity as such in a scheduled bank to the credit of a special bank account opened by him in that behalf: Provided that if the Tribunal considers that it is advantageous for the creditors or contributories or the company, it may permit the account to be opened in such other bank specified by it.

(2) If any Company Liquidator at any time retains for more than ten days a sum exceeding five thousand rupees or such other amount as the Tribunal may, on the application of the Company Liquidator, authorise him to retain, then, unless he explains the retention to the satisfaction of the Tribunal, he shall—

(a) pay interest on the amount so retained in excess, at the rate of twelve percent. per annum and also pay such penalty as may be determined by the Tribunal;

(b) be liable to pay any expenses occasioned by reason of his default; and

(c) also be liable to have all or such part of his remuneration, as the Tribunal may consider just and proper, disallowed, or may also be removed from his office.

351. Liquidator not to deposit monies into private banking account

Neither the Official Liquidator nor the Company Liquidator of a company shall deposit any monies received by him in his capacity as such into any private banking account.

352. Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets Account

(1) Where any company is being wound up and the liquidator has in his hands or under his control any money representing—

(a) dividends payable to any creditor but which had remained unpaid for six months after the date on which they were declared; or

(b) assets refundable to any contributory which have remained undistributed for six months after the date on which they become refundable, the liquidator shall forthwith deposit the said money into a separate special account to be known as the Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets Account maintained in a scheduled bank.

(2) The liquidator shall, on the dissolution of the company, pay into the Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets Account any money representing unpaid dividends or undistributed assets in his hands at the date of dissolution.

(3) The liquidator shall, when making any payment referred to in sub-sections (1) and

(2), furnish to the Registrar, a statement in the prescribed form, setting forth, in respect of all sums included in such payment, the nature of the sums, the names and last known addresses of the persons entitled to participate therein, the amount to which each is entitled and the nature of his claim thereto, and such other particulars as may be prescribed.

(4) The liquidator shall be entitled to a receipt from the scheduled bank for any money paid to it under sub-sections (1) and (2), and such receipt shall be an effectual discharge of the Company Liquidator in respect thereof.

(5) Where a company is being wound up voluntarily, the Company Liquidator shall, when filing a statement in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 348, indicate the sum of money which is payable under sub-sections (1) and (2) of this section during the six months preceding the date on which the said statement is prepared, and shall, within fourteen days of the date of filing the said statement, pay that sum into the Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets Account.

(6) Any person claiming to be entitled to any money paid into the Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets Account, whether paid in pursuance of this section or under the provisions of any previous company law may apply to the Registrar for payment thereof, and the Registrar, if satisfied that the person claiming is entitled, may make the payment to that person of the sum due: Provided that the Registrar shall settle the claim of such person within a period of sixty days from the date of receipt of such claim, failing which the Registrar shall make a report to the Regional Director giving reasons of such failure.

(7) Any money paid into the Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets

Account in pursuance of this section, which remains unclaimed thereafter for a period of fifteen years, shall be transferred to the general revenue account of the Central Government, but a claim to any money so transferred may be preferred under sub-section (6) and shall be dealt with as if such transfer had not been made and the order, if any, for payment on the claim will be treated as an order for refund of revenue.

(8) Any liquidator retaining any money which should have been paid by him into the Company Liquidation Dividend and Undistributed Assets Account under this section shall—

(a) pay interest on the amount so retained at the rate of twelve per cent. Per annum and also pay such penalty as may be determined by the Registrar: Provided that the Central Government may in any proper case remit either in part or in whole the amount of interest which the liquidator is required to pay under this clause;

(b) be liable to pay any expenses occasioned by reason of his default; and

(c) where the winding up is by the Tribunal, also be liable to have all or such part of his remuneration, as the Tribunal may consider just and proper, to be disallowed, and to be removed from his office by the Tribunal.

353. Liquidator to make returns, etc

(1) If any Company Liquidator who has made any default in filing, delivering or making any return, account or other document, or in giving any notice which he is by law required to file, deliver, make or give, fails to make good the default within fourteen days after the service on him of a notice requiring him to do so, the Tribunal may, on an application made to it by any contributory or creditor of the company or by the Registrar, make an order directing the Company Liquidator to make good the default within such time as may be specified in the order.

(2) Any order under sub-section (1) may provide that all costs of, and incidental to, the application shall be borne by the Company Liquidator.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prejudice the operation of any enactment imposing penalties on a Company Liquidator in respect of any such default as aforesaid.

354. Meetings to ascertain wishes of creditors or contributories

(1) In all matters relating to the winding up of a company, the Tribunal may—

(a) have regard to the wishes of creditors or contributories of the company, as proved to it by any sufficient evidence;

(b) if it thinks fit for the purpose of ascertaining those wishes, direct meetings of the creditors or contributories to be called, held and conducted in such manner as the Tribunal may direct; and

(c) appoint a person to act as chairman of any such meeting and to report the result thereof to the Tribunal.

(2) While ascertaining the wishes of creditors under sub-section (1), regard shall be had to the value of each debt of the creditor.

(3) While ascertaining the wishes of contributories under sub-section (1), regard shall be had to the number of votes which may be cast by each contributory.

355. Court, tribunal or person, etc., before whom affidavit may be sworn

(1) Any affidavit required to be sworn under the provisions, or for the purposes, of this Chapter may be sworn—

(a) in India before any court, tribunal, judge or person lawfully authorised to take and receive affidavits; and

(b) in any other country before any court, judge or person lawfully authorised to take and receive affidavits in that country or before an Indian diplomatic or consular officer.

(2) All tribunals, judges, Justices, commissioners and persons acting judicially in India shall take judicial notice of the seal, stamp or signature, as the case may be, of any such court, tribunal, judge, person, diplomatic or consular officer, attached, appended or subscribed to any such affidavit or to any other document to be used for the purposes of this Chapter.

356. Powers of Tribunal to declare dissolution of company void

(1) Where a company has been dissolved, whether in pursuance of this Chapter or of section 232 or otherwise, the Tribunal may at any time within two years of the date of the dissolution, on application by the Company Liquidator of the company or by any other person who appears to the Tribunal to be interested, make an order, upon such terms as the Tribunal thinks fit, declaring the dissolution to be void, and thereupon such proceedings may be taken as if the company had not been dissolved.

(2) It shall be the duty of the Company Liquidator or the person on whose application the order was made, within thirty days after the making of the order or such further time as the Tribunal may allow, to file a certified copy of the order with the Registrar who shall register the same, and if the Company Liquidator or the person fails so to do, the Company Liquidator or the person shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees for every day during which the default continues.

357. Commencement of winding up by Tribunal

(1) Where, before the presentation of a petition for the winding up of a company by the Tribunal, a resolution has been passed by the company for voluntary winding up, the winding up of the company shall be deemed to have commenced at the time of the passing of the resolution, and unless the Tribunal, on proof of fraud or mistake, thinks fit to direct otherwise, all proceedings taken in the voluntary winding up shall be deemed to have been validly taken.

(2) In any other case, the winding up of a company by the Tribunal shall be deemed to commence at the time of the presentation of the petition for the winding up.

  1. Exclusion of certain time in computing period of limitation

Notwithstanding anything in the Limitation Act, 1963, or in any other law for the time being in force, in computing the period of limitation specified for any suit or application in the name and on behalf of a company which is being wound up by the Tribunal, the period from the date of commencement of the winding up of the company to a period of one year immediately following the date of the winding up order shall be excluded.

359. Appointment of Official Liquidator

(1) For the purposes of this Act, so far as it relates to the winding up of companies by the Tribunal, the Central Government may appoint as many Official Liquidators, Joint, Deputy or Assistant Official Liquidators as it may consider necessary to discharge the functions of the Official Liquidator.

(2) The liquidators appointed under sub-section (1) shall be whole-time officers of the Central Government.

(3) The salary and other allowances of the Official Liquidator, Joint Official Liquidator, Deputy Official Liquidator and Assistant Official Liquidator shall be paid by the Central Government.

360. Powers and functions of Official Liquidator

(1) The Official Liquidator shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as the Central Government may prescribe.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Official Liquidator may—

(a) exercise all or any of the powers as may be exercised by a Company Liquidator under the provisions of this Act; and

(b) conduct inquiries or investigations, if directed by the Tribunal or the Central Government, in respect of matters arising out of winding up proceedings.

361. Summary procedure for liquidation

(1) Where the company to be wound up under this Chapter, —

(i) has assets of book value not exceeding one crore rupees; and

(ii) belongs to such class or classes of companies as may be prescribed, the Central Government may order it to be wound up by summary procedure provided under this Part.

(2) Where an order under sub-section (1) is made, the Central Government shall appoint the Official Liquidator as the liquidator of the company.

(3) The Official Liquidator shall forthwith take into his custody or control all assets, effects and actionable claims to which the company is or appears to be entitled.

(4) The Official Liquidator shall, within thirty days of his appointment, submit a report to the Central Government in such manner and form, as may be prescribed, including a report whether in his opinion, any fraud has been committed in promotion, formation or management of the affairs of the company or not.

(5) On receipt of the report under sub-section (4), if the Central Government is satisfied that any fraud has been committed by the promoters, directors or any other officer of the company, it may direct further investigation into the affairs of the company and that a report shall be submitted within such time as may be specified.

(6) After considering the investigation report under sub-section (5), the Central Government may order that winding up may be proceeded under Part I of this Chapter or under the provision of this Part.

362. Sale of assets and recovery of debts due to company

(1) The Official Liquidator shall expeditiously dispose of all the assets whether movable or immovable within sixty days of his appointment.

(2) The Official Liquidator shall serve a notice within thirty days of his appointment calling upon the debtors of the company or the contributories, as the case may be, to deposit within thirty days with him the amount payable to the company.

(3) Where any debtor does not deposit the amount under sub-section (2), the Central Government may, on an application made to it by the Official Liquidator, pass such orders as it thinks fit.

(4) The amount recovered under this section by the Official Liquidator shall be deposited in accordance with the provisions of section 349.

363. Settlement of claims of creditors by Official Liquidator

(1) The Official Liquidator within thirty days of his appointment shall call upon the creditors of the company to prove their claims in such manner as may be prescribed, within thirty days of the receipt of such call.

(2) The Official Liquidator shall prepare a list of claims of creditors in such manner as may be prescribed and each creditor shall be communicated of the claims accepted or rejected along with reasons to be recorded in writing.

364. Appeal by creditor

(1) Any creditor aggrieved by the decision of the Official Liquidator under section 363 may file an appeal before the Central Government within thirty days of such decision.

(2) The Central Government may after calling the report from the Official Liquidator either dismiss the appeal or modify the decision of the Official Liquidator.

(3) The Official Liquidator shall make payment to the creditors whose claims have been accepted.

(4) The Central Government may, at any stage during settlement of claims, if considers necessary, refer the matter to the Tribunal for necessary orders.

365. Order of dissolution of company

(1) The Official Liquidator shall, if he is satisfied that the company is finally wound up, submit a final report to—

(i) the Central Government, in case no reference was made to the Tribunal under sub-section (4) of section 364; and

(ii) in any other case, the Central Government and the Tribunal.

(2) The Central Government, or as the case may be, the Tribunal on receipt of such report shall order that the company be dissolved.

(3) Where an order is made under sub-section (2), the Registrar shall strike off the name of the company from the register of companies and publish a notification to this effect.

366. Companies capable of being registered

(1) For the purposes of this Part, the word “company” includes any partnership firm, limited liability partnership, cooperative society, society or any other business entity formed under any other law for the time being in force which applies for registration under this Part.

(2) With the exceptions and subject to the provisions contained in this section, any company formed, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, in pursuance of any Act of Parliament other than this Act or of any other law for the time being in force or being otherwise duly constituted according to law, and consisting of seven or more members, may at any time register under this Act as an unlimited company, or as a company limited by shares, or as a company limited by guarantee, in such manner as may be prescribed and the registration shall not be invalid by reason only that it has taken place with a view to the company’s being wound up: Provided that—

(i) a company registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1882 or under the Indian Companies Act, 1913 or the Companies Act, 1956, shall not register in pursuance of this section;

(ii) a company having the liability of its members limited by any Act of Parliament other than this Act or by any other law for the time being in force, shall not register in pursuance of this section as an unlimited company or as a company limited by guarantee;

(iii) a company shall be registered in pursuance of this section as a company limited by shares only if it has a permanent paid-up or nominal share capital of fixed amount divided into shares, also of fixed amount, or held and transferable as stock, or divided and held partly in the one way and partly in the other, and formed on the principle of having for its members the holders of those shares or that stock, and no other persons;

(iv) a company shall not register in pursuance of this section without the assent of a majority of such of its members as are present in person, or where proxies are allowed, by proxy, at a general meeting summoned for the purpose;

(v) where a company not having the liability of its members limited by any Act of Parliament or any other law for the time being in force is about to register as a limited company, the majority required to assent as aforesaid shall consist of not less than three-fourths of the members present in person, or where proxies are allowed, by proxy, at the meeting;

(vi) where a company is about to register as a company limited by guarantee, the assent to its being so registered shall be accompanied by a resolution declaring that each member undertakes to contribute to the assets of the company, in the event of its being wound up while he is a member, or within one year after he ceases to be a member, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company or of such debts and liabilities as may have been contracted before he ceases to be a member, and of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves, such amount as may be required, not exceeding a specified amount.

(3) In computing any majority required for the purposes of sub-section (1), when a poll is demanded, regard shall be had to the number of votes to which each member is entitled according to the regulations of the company.

367. Certificate of registration of existing companies

On compliance with the requirements of this Chapter with respect to registration, and on payment of such fees, if any, as are payable under section 403, the Registrar shall certify under his hand that the company applying for registration is incorporated as a company under this Act, and in the case of a limited company that it is limited and thereupon the company shall be so incorporated.

368. Vesting of property on registration

All property, movable and immovable (including actionable claims), belonging to or vested in a company at the date of its registration in pursuance of this Part, shall, on such registration, pass to and vest in the company as incorporated under this Act for all the estate and interest of the company therein.

369. Saving of existing liabilities

The registration of a company in pursuance of this Part shall not affect its rights or liabilities in respect of any debt or obligation incurred, or any contract entered into, by, to, with, or on behalf of, the company before registration.

370. Continuation of pending legal proceedings

All suits and other legal proceedings taken by or against the company, or any public officer or member thereof, which are pending at the time of the registration of a company in pursuance of this Part, may be continued in the same manner as if the registration had not taken place:

Provided that execution shall not issue against the property or persons of any individual member of the company on any decree or order obtained in any such suit or proceeding; but, in the event of the property of the company being insufficient to satisfy the decree or order, an order may be obtained for winding up the company.

371. Effect of registration under this Part

(1) When a company is registered in pursuance of this Part, sub-sections (2) to

(7) shall apply.

(2) All provisions contained in any Act of Parliament or any other law for the time being in force, or other instrument constituting or regulating the company, including, in the case of a company registered as a company limited by guarantee, the resolution declaring the amount of the guarantee, shall be deemed to be conditions and regulations of the company, in the same manner and with the same incidents as if so much thereof as would, if the company had been formed under this Act, have been required to be inserted in the memorandum, were contained in a registered memorandum, and the residue thereof were contained in registered articles.

(3) All the provisions of this Act shall apply to the company and the members, contributories and creditors thereof, in the same manner in all respects as if it had been formed under this Act, subject as follows:—

(a) Table F in Schedule I shall not apply unless and except in so far as it is adopted by special resolution;

(b) the provisions of this Act relating to the numbering of shares shall not apply to any company whose shares are not numbered;

(c) in the event of the company being wound up, every person shall be a contributory, in respect of the debts and liabilities of the company contracted before registration, who is liable to pay or contribute to the payment of any debt or liability of the company contracted before registration, or to pay or contribute to the payment of any sum for the adjustment of the rights of the members among themselves in respect of any such debt or liability, or to pay or contribute to the payment of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up the company, so far as relates to such debts or liabilities as aforesaid;

(d) in the event of the company being wound up, every contributory shall be liable to contribute to the assets of the company, in the course of the winding up, all sums due from him in respect of any such liability as aforesaid; and in the event of the death or insolvency of any contributory, the provisions of this Act with respect to the legal representatives of deceased contributories, or with respect to the assignees of insolvent contributories, as the case may be, shall apply.

(4) The provisions of this Act with respect to—

(a) the registration of an unlimited company as a limited company;

(b) the powers of an unlimited company on registration as a limited company, to increase the nominal amount of its share capital and to provide that a portion of its share capital shall not be capable of being called-up except in the event of winding up;

(c) the power of a limited company to determine that a portion of its share capital shall not be capable of being called-up except in the event of winding up, shall apply, notwithstanding anything in any Act of Parliament or any other law for the time being in force, or other instrument constituting or regulating the company.

(5) Nothing in this section shall authorise the company to alter any such provisions contained in any instrument constituting or regulating the company as would, if the company had originally been formed under this Act, have been required to be contained in the memorandum and are not authorised to be altered by this Act.

(6) None of the provisions of this Act (apart from those of section 242) shall derogate from any power of altering its constitution or regulations which may be vested in the company, by virtue of any Act of Parliament or any other law for the time being in force, or other instrument constituting or regulating the company.

(7) In this section, the expression “instrument” includes deed of settlement, deed of partnership, or limited liability partnership.

372. Power of Court to stay or restrain proceedings

The provisions of this Act with respect to staying and restraining suits and other legal proceedings against a company at any time after the presentation of a petition for winding up and before the making of a winding up order, shall, in the case of a company registered in pursuance of this Part, where the application to stay or restrain is by a creditor, extend to suits and other legal proceedings against any contributory of the company.

373. Suits stayed on winding up order

Where an order has been made for winding up, or a provisional liquidator has been appointed for, a company registered in pursuance of this Part, no suit or other legal proceeding shall be proceeded with or commenced against the company or any contributory of the company in respect of any debt of the company, except by leave of the Tribunal and except on such terms as the Tribunal may impose.

374. Obligations of companies registering under this Part

Every company which is seeking registration under this Part shall,—

(a) ensure that secured creditors of the company, prior to its registration under this Part, have either consented to or have given their no objection to company’s registration under this Part;

(b) publish in a newspaper, advertisement one in English and one in vernacular language in such form as may be prescribed giving notice about registration under this Part, seeking objections and address them suitably;

(c) file an affidavit, duly notarised, from all the members or partners to provide that in the event of registration under this Part, necessary documents or papers shall be submitted to the registering or other authority with which the company was earlier registered, for its dissolution as partnership firm, limited liability partnership, cooperative society, society or any other business entity, as the case may be.

(d) comply with such other conditions as may be prescribed.

375. Winding up of unregistered companies

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Part, any unregistered company may be wound up under this Act, in such manner as may be prescribed, and all the provisions of this Act, with respect to winding up shall apply to an unregistered company, with the exceptions and additions mentioned in sub-sections (2) to (4).

(2) No unregistered company shall be wound up under this Act voluntarily.

(3) An unregistered company may be wound up under the following circumstances, namely:—

(a) if the company is dissolved, or has ceased to carry on business, or is carrying on business only for the purpose of winding up its affairs;

(b) if the company is unable to pay its debts;

(c) if the Tribunal is of opinion that it is just and equitable that the company should be wound up.

(4) An unregistered company shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be unable to pay its debts—

(a) if a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the company is indebted in a sum exceeding one lakh rupees then due, has served on the company, by leaving at its principal place of business, or by delivering to the secretary, or some director, manager or principal officer of the company, or by otherwise serving in such manner as the Tribunal may approve or direct, a demand under his hand requiring the company to pay the sum so due, and the company has, for three weeks after the service of the demand, neglected to pay the sum or to secure or compound for it to the satisfaction of the creditor;

(b) if any suit or other legal proceeding has been instituted against any member for any debt or demand due, or claimed to be due, from the company, or from him in his character as a member, and notice in writing of the institution of the suit or other legal proceeding having been served on the company by leaving the same at its principal place of business or by delivering it to the secretary, or some director, manager or principal officer of the company or by otherwise serving the same in such manner as the Tribunal may approve or direct, the company has not, within ten days after service of the notice,—

(i) paid, secured or compounded for the debt or demand;

(ii) procured the suit or other legal proceeding to be stayed; or

(iii) indemnified the defendant to his satisfaction against the suit or other legal proceeding, and against all costs, damages and expenses to be incurred by him by reason of the same;

(c) if execution or other process issued on a decree or order of any Court or Tribunal in favour of a creditor against the company, or any member thereof as such, or any person authorised to be sued as nominal defendant on behalf of the company, is returned unsatisfied in whole or in part;

(d) if it is otherwise proved to the satisfaction of the Tribunal that the company is unable to pay its debts.

Explanation.For the purposes of this Part, the expression “unregistered company”—

(a) shall not include—

(i) a railway company incorporated under any Act of Parliament or other Indian law or any Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom;

(ii) a company registered under this Act; or

(iii) a company registered under any previous companies law and not being a company the registered office whereof was in Burma, Aden, Pakistan immediately before the separation of that country from India; and

(b) save as aforesaid, shall include any partnership firm, limited liability partnership or society or co-operative society, association or company consisting of more than seven members at the time when the petition for winding up the partnership firm, limited liability partnership or society or co-operative society, association or company, as the case may be, is presented before the Tribunal.

376. Power to wind up foreign companies, although dissolved

Where a body corporate incorporated outside India which has been carrying on business in India, ceases to carry on business in India, it may be wound up as an unregistered company under this Part, notwithstanding that the body corporate has been dissolved or otherwise ceased to exist as such under or by virtue of the laws of the country under which it was incorporated.

377. Provisions of Chapter cumulative

(1) The provisions of this Part, with respect to unregistered companies shall be in addition to and not in derogation of, any provisions hereinbefore in this Act contained with respect to the winding up of companies by the Tribunal.

(2) The Tribunal or Official Liquidator may exercise any powers or do any act in the case of unregistered companies which might be exercised or done by the Tribunal or Official Liquidator in winding up of companies formed and registered under this Act: Provided that an unregistered company shall not, except in the event of its being wound up, be deemed to be a company under this Act, and then only to the extent provided by this Part.

378. Saving and construction of enactments conferring power to wind up partnership firm, association or company, etc., in certain cases

Nothing in this Part, shall affect the operation of any enactment which provides for any partnership firm, limited liability partnership or society or co-operative society, association or company being wound up, or being wound up as a company or as an unregistered company, under the Companies Act, 1956, or any Act repealed by that Act: Provided that references in any such enactment to any provision contained in the Companies Act, 1956 or in any Act repealed by that Act shall be read as references to the corresponding provision, if any, contained in this Act.

379. Application of Act to foreign companies

Where not less than fifty per cent. of the paid-up share capital, whether equity or preference or partly equity and partly preference, of a foreign company is held by one or more citizens of India or by one or more companies or bodies corporate incorporated in India, or by one or more citizens of India and one or more companies or bodies corporate incorporated in India, whether singly or in the aggregate, such company shall comply with the provisions of this Chapter and such other provisions of this Act as may be prescribed with regard to the business carried on by it in India as if it were a company incorporated in India.

380. Documents, etc., to be delivered to Registrar by foreign companies

(1) Every foreign company shall, within thirty days of the establishment of its place of business in India, deliver to the Registrar for registration—

(a) a certified copy of the charter, statutes or memorandum and articles, of the company or other instrument constituting or defining the constitution of the company and, if the instrument is not in the English language, a certified translation thereof in the English language;

(b) the full address of the registered or principal office of the company;

(c) a list of the directors and secretary of the company containing such particulars as may be prescribed;

(d) the name and address or the names and addresses of one or more persons resident in India authorised to accept on behalf of the company service of process and any notices or other documents required to be served on the company;

(e) the full address of the office of the company in India which is deemed to be its principal place of business in India;

(f) particulars of opening and closing of a place of business in India on earlier occasion or occasions;

(g) declaration that none of the directors of the company or the authorised representative in India has ever been convicted or debarred from formation of companies and management in India or abroad; and

(h) any other information as may be prescribed.

(2) Every foreign company existing at the commencement of this Act shall, if it has not delivered to the Registrar before such commencement, the documents and particulars specified in sub-section (1) of section 592 of the Companies Act, 1956, continue to be subject to the obligation to deliver those documents and particulars in accordance with that Act.

(3) Where any alteration is made or occurs in the documents delivered to the Registrar under this section, the foreign company shall, within thirty days of such alteration, deliver to the Registrar for registration, a return containing the particulars of the alteration in the prescribed form.

381. Accounts of foreign company

(1) Every foreign company shall, in every calendar year,—

(a) make out a balance sheet and profit and loss account in such form, containing such particulars and including or having annexed or attached thereto such documents as may be prescribed; and

(b) deliver a copy of those documents to the Registrar: Provided that the Central Government may, by notification, direct that, in the case of any foreign company or class of foreign companies, the requirements of clause (a) shall not apply, or shall apply subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in that notification.

(2) If any such document as is mentioned in sub-section (1) is not in the English language, there shall be annexed to it a certified translation thereof in the English language.

(3) Every foreign company shall send to the Registrar along with the documents required to be delivered to him under sub-section (1), a copy of a list in the prescribed form of all places of business established by the company in India as at the date with reference to which the balance sheet referred to in sub-section (1) is made out.

382. Display of name, etc., of foreign company

Every foreign company shall—

(a) conspicuously exhibit on the outside of every office or place where it carries on business in India, the name of the company and the country in which it is incorporated, in letters easily legible in English characters, and also in the characters of the language or one of the languages in general use in the locality in which the office or place is situate;

(b) cause the name of the company and of the country in which the company is incorporated, to be stated in legible English characters in all business letters, billheads and letter paper, and in all notices, and other official publications of the company; and

(c) if the liability of the members of the company is limited, cause notice of that

fact—

(i) to be stated in every such prospectus issued and in all business letters, bill-heads, letter paper, notices, advertisements and other official publications of the company, in legible English characters; and

(ii) to be conspicuously exhibited on the outside of every office or place where it carries on business in India, in legible English characters and also in legible characters of the language or one of the languages in general use in the locality in which the office or place is situate.

383. Service on foreign company

Any process, notice, or other document required to be served on a foreign company shall be deemed to be sufficiently served, if addressed to any person whose name and address have been delivered to the Registrar under section 380 and left at, or sent by post to, the address which has been so delivered to the Registrar or by electronic mode.

384. Debentures, annual return, registration of charges, books of account and their inspection

(1) The provisions of section 71 shall apply mutatis mutandis to a foreign company.

(2) The provisions of section 92 shall, subject to such exceptions, modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by rules made under this Act, apply to a foreign company as they apply to a company incorporated in India.

(3) The provisions of section 128 shall apply to a foreign company to the extent of requiring it to keep at its principal place of business in India, the books of account referred to in that section, with respect to monies received and spent, sales and purchases made, and assets and liabilities, in the course of or in relation to its business in India.

(4) The provisions of Chapter VI shall apply mutatis mutandis to charges on properties which are created or acquired by any foreign company.

(5) The provisions of Chapter XIV shall apply mutatis mutandis to the Indian business of a foreign company as they apply to a company incorporated in India.

385. Fee for registration of documents

There shall be paid to the Registrar for registering any document required by the provisions of this Chapter to be registered by him, such fee, as may be prescribed.

386. Interpretation

For the purposes of the foregoing provisions of this Chapter,—

(a) the expression “certified” means certified in the prescribed manner to be a true copy or a correct translation;

(b) the expression “director”, in relation to a foreign company, includes any person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the Board of Directors of the company is accustomed to act; and

(c) the expression “place of business” includes a share transfer or registration office.

387. Dating of prospectus and particulars to be contained therein

(1) No person shall issue, circulate or distribute in India any prospectus offering to subscribe for securities of a company incorporated or to be incorporated outside India, whether the company has or has not established, or when formed will or will not establish, a place of business in India, unless the prospectus is dated and signed, and—

(a) contains particulars with respect to the following matters, namely:—

(i) the instrument constituting or defining the constitution of the company;

(ii) the enactments or provisions by or under which the incorporation of the company was effected;

(iii) address in India where the said instrument, enactments or provisions, or copies thereof, and if the same are not in the English language, a certified translation thereof in the English language can be inspected;

(iv) the date on which and the country in which the company would be or was incorporated; and

(v) whether the company has established a place of business in India and, if so, the address of its principal office in India; and

(b) states the matters specified under section 26: Provided that sub-clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) of clause (a) of this sub-section shall not apply in the case of a prospectus issued more than two years after the date at which the company is entitled to commence business.

(2) Any condition requiring or binding an applicant for securities to waive compliance with any requirement imposed by virtue of sub-section (1), or purporting to impute him with notice of any contract, documents or matter not specifically referred to in the prospectus, shall be void.

(3) No person shall issue to any person in India a form of application for securities of such a company or intended company as is mentioned in sub-section (1), unless the form is issued with a prospectus which complies with the provisions of this Chapter and such issue does not contravene the provisions of section 388: Provided that this sub-section shall not apply if it is shown that the form of application was issued in connection with a bona fide invitation to a person to enter into an underwriting agreement with respect to securities.

(4) This section —

(a) shall not apply to the issue to existing members or debenture holders of a company of a prospectus or form of application relating to securities of the company, whether an applicant for securities will or will not have the right to renounce in favour of other persons; and

(b) except in so far as it requires a prospectus to be dated, to the issue of a prospectus relating to securities which are or are to be in all respects uniform with securities previously issued and for the time being dealt in or quoted on a recognized stock exchange, but, subject as aforesaid, this section shall apply to a prospectus or form of application whether issued on or with reference to the formation of a company or subsequently.

(5) Nothing in this section shall limit or diminish any liability which any person may incur under any law for the time being in force in India or under this Act apart from this section.

388. Provisions as to expert’s consent and allotment

(1) No person shall issue, circulate or distribute in India any prospectus offering for subscription in securities of a company incorporated or to be incorporated outside India, whether the company has or has not been established, or when formed will or will not establish, a place of business in India,—

(a) if, where the prospectus includes a statement purporting to be made by an expert, he has not given, or has before delivery of the prospectus for registration withdrawn, his written consent to the issue of the prospectus with the statement included in the form and context in which it is included, or there does not appear in the prospectus a statement that he has given and has not withdrawn his consent as aforesaid; or

(b) if the prospectus does not have the effect, where an application is made in pursuance thereof, of rendering all persons concerned bound by all the provisions of sections 33 and 40, so far as applicable.

(2) For the purposes of this section, a statement shall be deemed to be included in a prospectus, if it is contained in any report or memorandum appearing on the face thereof or by reference incorporated therein or issued therewith.

389. Registration of prospectus

No person shall issue, circulate or distribute in India any prospectus offering for subscription in securities of a company incorporated or to be incorporated outside India, whether the company has or has not established, or when formed will or will not establish, a place of business in India, unless before the issue, circulation or distribution of the prospectus in India, a copy thereof certified by the chairperson of the company and two other directors of the company as having been approved by resolution of the managing body has been delivered for registration to the Registrar and the prospectus states on the face of it that a copy has been so delivered, and there is endorsed on or attached to the copy, any consent to the issue of the prospectus required by section 388 and such documents as may be prescribed.

390. Offer of Indian Depository Receipts

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the Central Government may make rules applicable for—

(a) the offer of Indian Depository Receipts;

(b) the requirement of disclosures in prospectus or letter of offer issued in connection with Indian Depository Receipts;

(c) the manner in which the Indian Depository Receipts shall be dealt with in a depository mode and by custodian and underwriters; and

(d) the manner of sale, transfer or transmission of Indian Depository Receipts, by a company incorporated or to be incorporated outside India, whether the company has or has not established, or will or will not establish, any place of business in India.

  1. Application of sections 34 to 36 and Chapter XX

(1) The provisions of sections 34 to 36 (both inclusive) shall apply to—

(i) the issue of a prospectus by a company incorporated outside India under section 389 as they apply to prospectus issued by an Indian company;

(ii) the issue of Indian Depository Receipts by a foreign company.

(2) The provisions of Chapter XX shall apply mutatis mutandis for closure of the place of business of a foreign company in India as if it were a company incorporated in India.

392. Punishment for contravention

Without prejudice to the provisions of section 391, if a foreign company contravenes the provisions of this Chapter, the foreign company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees and in the case of a continuing offence, with an additional fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the contravention continues and every officer of the foreign company who is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees, or with both.

393. Company’s failure to comply with provisions of this Chapter not to affect validity of contracts, etc

Any failure by a company to comply with the provisions of this Chapter shall not affect the validity of any contract, dealing or transaction entered into by the company or its liability to be sued in respect thereof, but the company shall not be entitled to bring any suit, claim any set-off, make any counter-claim or institute any legal proceeding in respect of any such contract, dealing or transaction, until the company has complied with the provisions of this Act applicable to it.

394. Annual reports on Government companies

(1) Where the Central Government is a member of a Government company, the Central Government shall cause an annual report on the working and affairs of that company to be—

(a) prepared within three months of its annual general meeting before which the comments given by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India and the audit report is placed under the proviso to sub-section (6) of section 143; and

(b) as soon as may be after such preparation, laid before both Houses of Parliament together with a copy of the audit report and comments upon or supplement to the audit report, made by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

(2) Where in addition to the Central Government, any State Government is also a member of a Government company, that State Government shall cause a copy of the annual report prepared under sub-section (1) to be laid before the House or both Houses of the State Legislature together with a copy of the audit report and the comments upon or supplement to the audit report referred to in sub-section (1).

395. Annual reports where one or more State Governments are members of companies

(1) Where the Central Government is not a member of a Government company, every State Government which is a member of that company, or where only one State Government is a member of the company, that State Government shall cause an annual report on the working and affairs of the company to be—

(a) prepared within the time specified in sub-section (1) of section 394; and

(b) as soon as may be after such preparation, laid before the House or both Houses of the State Legislature together with a copy of the audit report and comments upon or supplement to the audit report referred to in sub-section (1) of that section.

(2) The provisions of this section and section 394 shall, so far as may be, apply to a Government company in liquidation as they apply to any other Government company.

396. Registration offices

(1) For the purposes of exercising such powers and discharging such functions as are conferred on the Central Government by or under this Act or under the rules made there under and for the purposes of registration of companies under this Act, the Central Government shall, by notification, establish such number of offices at such places as it thinks fit, specifying their jurisdiction.

(2) The Central Government may appoint such Registrars, Additional, Joint, Deputy and Assistant Registrars as it considers necessary for the registration of companies and discharge of various functions under this Act, and the powers and duties that may be exercisable by such officers shall be such as may be prescribed.

(3) The terms and conditions of service, including the salaries payable to persons appointed under sub-section (2), shall be such as may be prescribed.

(4) The Central Government may direct a seal or seals to be prepared for the authentication of documents required for, or connected with, the registration of companies.

397. Admissibility of certain documents as evidence

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, any document reproducing or derived from returns and documents filed by a company with the Registrar on paper or in electronic form or stored on any electronic data storage device or computer readable media by the Registrar, and authenticated by the Registrar or any other officer empowered by the Central Government in such manner as may be prescribed, shall be deemed to be a document for the purposes of this Act and the rules made there under and shall be admissible in any proceedings there under without further proof or production of the original as evidence of any contents of the original or of any fact stated therein of which direct evidence is admissible.

398. Provisions relating to filing of applications, documents, inspection, etc., in electronic form

(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Act, and without prejudice to the provisions contained in section 6 of the Information Technology Act, 2000, the Central Government may make rules so as to require from such date as may be prescribed in the rules that—

(a) such applications, balance sheet, prospectus, return, declaration, memorandum, articles, particulars of charges, or any other particulars or document as may be required to be filed or delivered under this Act or the rules made thereunder, shall be filed in the electronic form and authenticated in such manner as may be prescribed;

(b) such document, notice, any communication or intimation, as may be required to be served or delivered under this Act, in the electronic form and authenticated in such manner as may be prescribed;

(c) such applications, balance sheet, prospectus, return, register, memorandum, articles, particulars of charges, or any other particulars or document and return filed under this Act or rules made thereunder shall be maintained by the Registrar in the electronic form and registered or authenticated, as the case may be, in such manner as may be prescribed;

(d) such inspection of the memorandum, articles, register, index, balance sheet, return or any other particulars or document maintained in the electronic form, as is otherwise available for inspection under this Act or the rules made there under, may be made by any person through the electronic form in such manner as may be prescribed;

(e) such fees, charges or other sums payable under this Act or the rules made thereunder shall be paid through the electronic form and in such manner as may be prescribed; and

(f) the Registrar shall register change of registered office, alteration of memorandum or articles, prospectus, issue certificate of incorporation, register such document, issue such certificate, record the notice, receive such communication as may be required to be registered or issued or recorded or received, as the case may be, under this Act or the rules made there under or perform duties or discharge functions or exercise powers under this Act or the rules made there under or do any act which is by this Act directed to be performed or discharged or exercised or done by the Registrar in the electronic form in such manner as may be prescribed.

Explanation.— For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that the rules made under this section shall not relate to imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties or demand or payment of fees or contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or punishment therefor.

(2) The Central Government may, by notification, frame a scheme to carry out the provisions of sub-section (1) through the electronic form.

399. Inspection, production and evidence of documents kept by Registrar

(1) Save as otherwise provided elsewhere in this Act, any person may—

(a) inspect by electronic means any documents kept by the Registrar in accordance with the rules made, being documents filed or registered by him in pursuance of this Act, or making a record of any fact required or authorised to be recorded or registered in pursuance of this Act, on payment for each inspection of such fees as may be prescribed;

(b) require a certificate of the incorporation of any company, or a copy or extractof any other document or any part of any other document to be certified by the Registrar, on payment in advance of such fees as may be prescribed: Provided that the rights conferred by this sub-section shall be exercisable—

(i) in relation to documents delivered to the Registrar with a prospectus in pursuance of section 26, only during the fourteen days beginning with the date of publication of the prospectus; and at other times, only with the permission of the

Central Government; and

(ii) in relation to documents so delivered in pursuance of clause (b) of subsection

(1) of section 388, only during the fourteen days beginning with the date of the prospectus; and at other times, only with the permission of the Central Government.

(2) No process for compelling the production of any document kept by the Registrar shall issue from any court or the Tribunal except with the leave of that court or the Tribunal and any such process, if issued, shall bear thereon a statement that it is issued with the leave of the court or the Tribunal.

(3) A copy of, or extract from, any document kept and registered at any of the offices for the registration of companies under this Act, certified to be a true copy by the Registrar (whose official position it shall not be necessary to prove), shall, in all legal proceedings, be admissible in evidence as of equal validity with the original document.

400. Electronic form to be exclusive, alternative or in addition to physical form

The Central Government may also provide in the rules made under section 398 and section 399 that the electronic form for the purposes specified in these sections shall be exclusive, or in the alternative or in addition to the physical form, there for.

401. Provision of value added services through electronic form

The Central Government may provide such value added services through the electronic form and levy such fee thereon as may be prescribed.

402. Application of provisions of Information Technology Act, 2000

All the provisions of the Information Technology Act, 2000 relating to the electronic records, including the manner and format in which the electronic records shall be filed, in so far as they are not inconsistent with this Act, shall apply in relation to the records in electronic form specified under section 398

403. Fee for filing, etc

(1) Any document, required to be submitted, filed, registered or recorded, or any fact or information required or authorised to be registered under this Act, shall be submitted, filed, registered or recorded within the time specified in the relevant provision on payment of such fee as may be prescribed: Provided that any document, fact or information may be submitted, filed, registered or recorded, after the time specified in relevant provision for such submission, filing, registering or recording, within a period of two hundred and seventy days from the date by which it should have been submitted, filed, registered or recorded, as the case may be, on payment of such additional fee as may be prescribed: Provided further that any such document, fact or information may, without prejudice to any other legal action or liability under the Act, be also submitted, filed, registered or recorded, after the first time specified in first proviso on payment of fee and additional fee specified under this section.

(2) Where a company fails or commits any default to submit, file, register or record any document, fact or information under sub-section (1) before the expiry of the period specified in the first proviso to that sub-section with additional fee, the company and the officers of the company who are in default, shall, without prejudice to the liability for payment of fee and additional fee, be liable for the penalty or punishment provided under this Act for such failure or default.

404. Fees, etc., to be credited into public account

All fees, charges and other sums received by any Registrar, Additional, Joint, Deputy or Assistant Registrar or any other officer of the Central Government in pursuance of any provision of this Act shall be paid into the public account of India in the Reserve Bank of India.

405. Power of Central Government to direct companies to furnish information or statistics

(1) The Central Government may, by order, require companies generally, or any class of companies, or any company, to furnish such information or statistics with regard to their or its constitution or working, and within such time, as may be specified in the order.

(2) Every order under sub-section (1) shall be published in the Official Gazette and may be addressed to companies generally or to any class of companies, in such manner, as the Central Government may think fit and the date of such publication shall be deemed to be the date on which requirement for information or statistics is made on such companies or class of companies, as the case may be.

(3) For the purpose of satisfying itself that any information or statistics furnished by a company or companies in pursuance of any order under sub-section (1) is correct and complete, the Central Government may by order require such company or companies to produce such records or documents in its possession or allow inspection thereof by such officer or furnish such further information as that Government may consider necessary.

(4) If any company fails to comply with an order made under sub-section (1) or subsection

(3), or knowingly furnishes any information or statistics which is incorrect or incomplete in any material respect, the company shall be punishable with fine which may extend to twenty-five thousand rupees and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to three lakh rupees, or with both.

(5) Where a foreign company carries on business in India, all references to a company in this section shall be deemed to include references to the foreign company in relation, and only in relation, to such business.

406. Power to modify Act in its application to Nidhis

(1) In this section, “Nidhi” means a company which has been incorporated as a Nidhi with the object of cultivating the habit of thrift and savings amongst its members, receiving deposits from, and lending to, its members only, for their mutual benefit, and which complies with such rules as are prescribed by the Central Government for regulation of such class of companies.

(2) Save as otherwise expressly provided, the Central Government may, by notification, direct that any of the provisions of this Act shall not apply, or shall apply with such exceptions, modifications and adaptations as may be specified in that notification, to any Nidhi or Nidhis of any class or description as may be specified in that notification.

(3) A copy of every notification proposed to be issued under sub-section (2), shall be laid in draft before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in disapproving the issue of the notification or both Houses agree in making any modification in the notification, the notification shall not be issued or, as the case may be, shall be issued only in such modified form as may be agreed upon by both the Houses.

407. Definitions

In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) “Chairperson” means the Chairperson of the Appellate Tribunal;

(b) “Judicial Member” means a member of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal appointed as such and includes the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be;

(c) “Member” means a member, whether Judicial or Technical of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal and includes the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be;

(d) “President” means the President of the Tribunal;

(e) “Technical Member” means a member of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal appointed as such.

408. Constitution of National Company Law Tribunal

The Central Government shall, by notification, constitute, with effect from such date as may be specified therein, a Tribunal to be known as the National Company Law

Tribunal consisting of a President and such number of Judicial and Technical members, as the Central Government may deem necessary, to be appointed by it by notification, to exercise and discharge such powers and functions as are, or may be, conferred on it by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force.

409. Qualification of President and Members of Tribunal

(1) The President shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court for five years.

(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judicial Member unless he—

(a) is, or has been, a judge of a High Court; or

(b) is, or has been, a District Judge for at least five years; or

(c) has, for at least ten years been an advocate of a court.

Explanation.—For the purposes of clause (c), in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law after he become an advocate.

(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Technical Member unless he—

(a) has, for at least fifteen years been a member of the Indian Corporate Law Service or Indian Legal Service out of which at least three years shall be in the pay scale of Joint Secretary to the Government of India or equivalent or above in that service; or

(b) is, or has been, in practice as a chartered accountant for at least fifteen years; or

(c) is, or has been, in practice as a cost accountant for at least fifteen years; or

(d) is, or has been, in practice as a company secretary for at least fifteen years; or

(e) is a person of proven ability, integrity and standing having special knowledge and experience, of not less than fifteen years, in law, industrial finance, industrial management or administration, industrial reconstruction, investment, accountancy, labour matters, or such other disciplines related to management, conduct of affairs, revival, rehabilitation and winding up of companies; or

(f) is, or has been, for at least five years, a presiding officer of a Labour Court, Tribunal or National Tribunal constituted under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947.

410. Constitution of Appellate Tribunal

The Central Government shall, by notification, constitute, with effect from such date as may be specified therein, an Appellate Tribunal to be known as the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal consisting of a chairperson and such number of Judicial and Technical Members, not exceeding eleven, as the Central Government may deem fit, to be appointed by it by notification, for hearing appeals against the orders of the Tribunal.

411. Qualifications of chairperson and Members of Appellate Tribunal

(1) The chairperson shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court or the Chief Justice of a High Court.

(2) A Judicial Member shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court or is a Judicial Member of the Tribunal for five years.

(3) A Technical Member shall be a person of proven ability, integrity and standing having special knowledge and experience, of not less than twenty-five years, in law, industrial finance, industrial management or administration, industrial reconstruction, investment, accountancy, labour matters, or such other disciplines related to management, conduct of affairs, revival, rehabilitation and winding up of companies.

412. Selection of Members of Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal

(1) The President of the Tribunal and the chairperson and Judicial Members of the Appellate Tribunal, shall be appointed after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

(2) The Members of the Tribunal and the Technical Members of the Appellate Tribunal shall be appointed on the recommendation of a Selection Committee consisting of—

(a) Chief Justice of India or his nominee—Chairperson;

(b) a senior Judge of the Supreme Court or a Chief Justice of High Court—Member;

(c) Secretary in the Ministry of Corporate Affairs—Member;

(d) Secretary in the Ministry of Law and Justice—Member; and

(e) Secretary in the Department of Financial Services in the Ministry of Finance Member.

(3) The Secretary, Ministry of Corporate Affairs shall be the Convener of the Selection Committee.

(4) The Selection Committee shall determine its procedure for recommending persons under sub-section (2).

(5) No appointment of the Members of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal shall be invalid merely by reason of any vacancy or any defect in the constitution of the Selection Committee.

413. Term of office of President, chairperson and other Members

(1) The President and every other Member of the Tribunal shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office, but shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years.

(2) A Member of the Tribunal shall hold office as such until he attains,—

(a) in the case of the President, the age of sixty-seven years;

(b) in the case of any other Member, the age of sixty-five years: Provided that a person who has not completed fifty years of age shall not be eligible for appointment as Member: Provided further that the Member may retain his lien with his parent cadre or Ministry or Department, as the case may be, while holding office as such for a period not exceeding one year.

(3) The chairperson or a Member of the Appellate Tribunal shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office, but shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years.

(4) A Member of the Appellate Tribunal shall hold office as such until he attains,—

(a) in the case of the Chairperson, the age of seventy years;

(b) in the case of any other Member, the age of sixty-seven years: Provided that a person who has not completed fifty years of age shall not be eligible for appointment as Member: Provided further that the Member may retain his lien with his parent cadre or Ministry or Department, as the case may be, while holding office as such for a period not exceeding one year.

414. Salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of Members

The salary, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of the Members of the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall be such as may be prescribed: Provided that neither the salary and allowances nor the other terms and conditions of service of the Members shall be varied to their disadvantage after their appointment.

415. Acting President and Chairperson of Tribunal or Appellate Tribunal

(1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President or the Chairperson by reason of his death, resignation or otherwise, the senior-most Member shall act as the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be, until the date on which a new President or Chairperson appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy enters upon his office.

(2) When the President or the Chairperson is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the senior-most Member shall discharge the functions of the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be, until the date on which the President or the Chairperson resumes his duties.

416. Resignation of Members

The President, the Chairperson or any Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government, resign from his office: Provided that the President, the Chairperson, or the Member shall continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice by the Central Government or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is earliest.

417. Removal of Members

(1) The Central Government may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, remove from office the President, Chairperson or any Member, who—

(a) has been adjudged an insolvent; or

(b) has been convicted of an offence which, in the opinion of the Central Government, involves moral turpitude; or

(c) has become physically or mentally incapable of acting as such President, the Chairperson, or Member; or

(d) has acquired such financial or other interest as is likely to affect prejudicially his functions as such President, the Chairperson or Member; or

(e) has so abused his position as to render his continuance in office prejudicial to the public interest: Provided that the President, the Chairperson or the Member shall not be removed on any of the grounds specified in clauses (b) to (e) without giving him a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the President, the Chairperson or the Member shall not be removed from his office except by an order made by the Central Government on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the Supreme Court nominated by the Chief Justice of India on a reference made to him by the Central Government in which such President, the Chairperson or Member had been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(3) The Central Government may, with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of India, suspend from office, the President, the Chairperson or Member in respect of whom reference has been made to the Judge of the Supreme Court under sub-section (2) until the Central Government has passed orders on receipt of the report of the Judge of the Supreme Court on such reference.

(4) The Central Government shall, after consultation with the Supreme Court, make rules to regulate the procedure for the inquiry on the ground of proved miss behavior or incapacity referred to in sub-section (2).

419. Benches of Tribunal

(1) There shall be constituted such number of Benches of the Tribunal, as may, by notification, be specified by the Central Government.

(2) The Principal Bench of the Tribunal shall be at New Delhi which shall be presided over by the President of the Tribunal.

(3) The powers of the Tribunal shall be exercisable by Benches consisting of two

Members out of whom one shall be a Judicial Member and the other shall be a Technical Member: Provided that it shall be competent for the Members of the Tribunal authorised in this behalf to function as a Bench consisting of a single Judicial Member and exercise the powers of the Tribunal in respect of such class of cases or such matters pertaining to such class of cases, as the President may, by general or special order, specify: Provided further that if at any stage of the hearing of any such case or matter, it appears to the Member that the case or matter is of such a nature that it ought to be heard by a Bench consisting of two Members, the case or matter may be transferred by the President, or, as the case may be, referred to him for transfer, to such Bench as the President may deem fit.

(4) The President shall, for the disposal of any case relating to rehabilitation, restructuring, reviving or winding up, of companies, constitute one or more Special Benches consisting of three or more Members, majority necessarily being of Judicial Members.

(5) If the Members of a Bench differ in opinion on any point or points, it shall be decided according to the majority, if there is a majority, but if the Members are equally divided, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and the case shall be referred by the President for hearing on such point or points by one or more of the other Members of the Tribunal and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of Members who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

420. Orders of Tribunal

(1) The Tribunal may, after giving the parties to any proceeding before it, a reasonable opportunity of being heard, pass such orders thereon as it thinks fit.

(2) The Tribunal may, at any time within two years from the date of the order, with a view to rectifying any mistake apparent from the record, amend any order passed by it, and shall make such amendment, if the mistake is brought to its notice by the parties: Provided that no such amendment shall be made in respect of any order against which an appeal has been preferred under this Act.

(3) The Tribunal shall send a copy of every order passed under this section to all the parties concerned.

421. Appeal from orders of Tribunal

(1) Any person aggrieved by an order of the Tribunal may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal.

(2) No appeal shall lie to the Appellate Tribunal from an order made by the Tribunal with the consent of parties.

(3) Every appeal under sub-section (1) shall be filed within a period of forty-five days from the date on which a copy of the order of the Tribunal is made available to the person aggrieved and shall be in such form, and accompanied by such fees, as may be prescribed: Provided that the Appellate Tribunal may entertain an appeal after the expiry of the said period of forty-five days from the date aforesaid, but within a further period not exceeding forty-five days, if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal within that period.

(4) On the receipt of an appeal under sub-section (1), the Appellate Tribunal shall, after giving the parties to the appeal a reasonable opportunity of being heard, pass such orders thereon as it thinks fit, confirming, modifying or setting aside the order appealed against.

(5) The Appellate Tribunal shall send a copy of every order made by it to the Tribunal and the parties to appeal.

422. Expeditious disposal by Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal

(1) Every application or petition presented before the Tribunal and every appeal filed before the Appellate Tribunal shall be dealt with and disposed of by it as expeditiously as possible and every endeavour shall be made by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, for the disposal of such application or petition or appeal within three months from the date of its presentation before the Tribunal or the filing of the appeal before the Appellate Tribunal.

(2) Where any application or petition or appeal is not disposed of within the period specified in sub-section (1), the Tribunal or, as the case may be, the Appellate Tribunal, shall record the reasons for not disposing of the application or petition or the appeal, as the case may be, within the period so specified; and the President or the Chairperson, as the case may be, may, after taking into account the reasons so recorded, extend the period referred to in sub-section (1) by such period not exceeding ninety days as he may consider necessary.

423. Appeal to Supreme Court

Any person aggrieved by any order of the Appellate Tribunal may file an appeal to the Supreme Court within sixty days from the date of receipt of the order of the Appellate Tribunal to him on any question of law arising out of such order: Provided that the Supreme Court may, if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal within the said period, allow it to be filed within a further period not exceeding sixty days.

424. Procedure before Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal

(1) The Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall not, while disposing of any proceeding before it or, as the case may be, an appeal before it, be bound by the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice, and, subject to the other provisions of this Act and of any rules made there under, the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall have power to regulate their own procedure.

(2) The Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall have, for the purposes of discharging their functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely:—

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;

(b) requiring the discovery and production of documents;

(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;

(d) subject to the provisions of sections 123 and 124 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, requisitioning any public record or document or a copy of such record or document from any office;

(e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents;

(f) dismissing a representation for default or deciding it ex parte;

(g) setting aside any order of dismissal of any representation for default or any order passed by it ex parte; and

(h) any other matter which may be prescribed.

(3) Any order made by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal may be enforced by that Tribunal in the same manner as if it were a decree made by a court in a suit pending therein, and it shall be lawful for the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal to send for execution of its orders to the court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction,—

(a) in the case of an order against a company, the registered office of the company is situate; or

(b) in the case of an order against any other person, the person concerned voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

(4) All proceedings before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228, and for the purposes of section 196 of the Indian Penal Code, and the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be civil court for the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

425. Power to punish for contempt

The Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal shall have the same jurisdiction, powers and authority in respect of contempt of themselves as the High Court has and may exercise, for this purpose, the powers under the provisions of the Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, which shall have the effect subject to modifications that—

(a) the reference therein to a High Court shall be construed as including a reference to the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal; and

(b) the reference to Advocate-General in section 15 of the said Act shall be construed as a reference to such Law Officers as the Central Government may, specify in this behalf.

426. Delegation of powers

The Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal may, by general or special order, direct, subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in the order, any of its officers or employees or any other person authorised by it to inquire into any matter connected with any proceeding or, as the case may be, appeal before it and to report to it in such manner as may be specified in the order.

427. President, Members, officers, etc., to be public servants

The President, Members, officers and other employees of the Tribunal and the Chairperson, Members, officers and other employees of the Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code.

428. Protection of action taken in good faith

No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Tribunal, the President, Member, officer or other employee, or against the Appellate Tribunal, the Chairperson, Member, officer or other employees thereof or liquidator or any other person authorised by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal for the discharge of any function under this Act in respect of any loss or damage caused or likely to be caused by any act which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act.

429. Power to seek assistance of Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, etc

(1) The Tribunal may, in any proceeding relating to a sick company or winding up of any other company, in order to take into custody or under its control all property, books of account or other documents, request, in writing, the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate or the District Collector within whose jurisdiction any such property, books of account or other documents of such sick or other company, are situate or found, to take possession thereof, and the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate or the District Collector, as the case may be, shall, on such request being made to him,—

(a) take possession of such property, books of account or other documents; and

(b) cause the same to be entrusted to the Tribunal or other person authorised by it.

(2) For the purpose of securing compliance with the provisions of sub-section (1), the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate or the District Collector may take or cause to be taken such steps and use or cause to be used such force as may, in his opinion, be necessary.

(3) No act of the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Chief Judicial Magistrate or the District Collector done in pursuance of this section shall be called in question in any court or before any authority on any ground whatsoever.

430. Civil court not to have jurisdiction

No civil court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered to determine by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal.

431. Vacancy in Tribunal or Appellate Tribunal not to invalidate acts or proceedings

No act or proceeding of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal shall be questioned or shall be invalid merely on the ground of the existence of any vacancy or defect in the constitution of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.

432. Right to legal representation

A party to any proceeding or appeal before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, may either appear in person or authorise one or more chartered accountants or company secretaries or cost accountants or legal practitioners or any other person to present his case before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.

433. Limitation

The provisions of the Limitation Act, 1963 shall, as far as may be, apply to proceedings or appeals before the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.

434. Transfer of certain pending proceedings

(1) On such date as may be notified by the Central Government in this behalf,—

(a) all matters, proceedings or cases pending before the Board of Company Law Administration (herein in this section referred to as the Company Law Board) constituted under sub-section (1) of section 10E of the Companies Act, 1956, immediately before such date shall stand transferred to the Tribunal and the Tribunal shall dispose of such matters, proceedings or cases in accordance with the provisions of this Act;

(b) any person aggrieved by any decision or order of the Company Law Board made before such date may file an appeal to the High Court within sixty days from the date of communication of the decision or order of the Company Law Board to him on and question of law arising out of such order: Provided that the High Court may if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing an appeal within the said period, allow it to be filed within a further period not exceeding sixty days;

(c) all proceedings under the Companies Act, 1956, including proceedings relating to arbitration, compromise, arrangements and reconstruction and winding up of companies, pending immediately before such date before any District Court or High Court, shall stand transferred to the Tribunal and the Tribunal may proceed to deal with such proceedings from the stage before their transfer.

(d) any appeal preferred to the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction or any reference made or inquiry pending to or before the Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction or any proceeding of whatever nature pending before the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction or the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 immediately before the commencement of this Act shall stand abated: Provided that a company in respect of which such appeal or reference or inquiry stands abated under this clause may make a reference to the Tribunal under this Act within one hundred and eighty days from the commencement of this Act in accordance with the provisions of this Act: Provided further that no fees shall be payable for making such reference under this Act by a company whose appeal or reference or inquiry stands abated under this clause.

(2) The Central Government may make rules consistent with the provisions of this Act to ensure timely transfer of all matters, proceedings or cases pending before the Company Law Board or the courts, to the Tribunal under this section.

435. Establishment of Special Courts

(1) The Central Government may, for the purpose of providing speedy trial of offences under this Act, by notification, establish or designate as many Special Courts as may be necessary.

(2) A Special Court shall consist of a single judge who shall be appointed by the Central Government with the concurrence of the Chief Justice of the High Court within whose jurisdiction the judge to be appointed is working.

(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a judge of a Special Court unless he is, immediately before such appointment, holding office of a Sessions Judge or an Additional Sessions Judge.

436. Offences triable by Special Courts

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973,—

(a) all offences under this Act shall be triable only by the Special Court established for the area in which the registered office of the company in relation to which the offence is committed or where there are more Special Courts than one for such area, by such one of them as may be specified in this behalf by the High Court concerned;

(b) where a person accused of, or suspected of the commission of, an offence under this Act is forwarded to a Magistrate under sub-section (2) or sub-section (2A) of section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, such Magistrate may authorise the detention of such person in such custody as he thinks fit for a period not exceeding fifteen days in the whole where such Magistrate is a Judicial Magistrate and seven days in the whole where such Magistrate is an Executive Magistrate: Provided that where such Magistrate considers that the detention of such person upon or before the expiry of the period of detention is unnecessary, he shall order such person to be forwarded to the Special Court having jurisdiction;

(c) the Special Court may exercise, in relation to the person forwarded to it under clause (b), the same power which a Magistrate having jurisdiction to try a case may exercise under section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 in relation to an accused person who has been forwarded to him under that section; and

(d) a Special Court may, upon perusal of the police report of the facts constituting an offence under this Act or upon a complaint in that behalf, take cognizance of that offence without the accused being committed to it for trial.

(2) When trying an offence under this Act, a Special Court may also try an offence other than an offence under this Act with which the accused may, under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 be charged at the same trial.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the Special Court may, if it thinks fit, try in a summary way any offence under this Act which is punishable with imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years: Provided that in the case of any conviction in a summary trial, no sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding one year shall be passed: Provided further that when at the commencement of, or in the course of, a summary trial, it appears to the Special Court that the nature of the case is such that the sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding one year may have to be passed or that it is, for any other reason, undesirable to try the case summarily, the Special Court shall, after hearing the parties, record an order to that effect and thereafter recall any witnesses who may have been examined and proceed to hear or rehear the case in accordance with the procedure for the regular trial.

437. Appeal and revision

The High Court may exercise, so far as may be applicable, all the powers conferred by Chapters XXIX and XXX of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 on a High Court, as if a Special Court within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the High Court were a Court of Session trying cases within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the High Court.

438. Application of Code to proceedings before Special Court

Save as otherwise provided in this Act, the provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 shall apply to the proceedings before a Special Court and for the purposes of the said provisions, the Special Court shall be deemed to be a Court of Session and the person conducting a prosecution before a Special Court shall be deemed to be a Public Prosecutor.

439. Offences to be noncognizable

(1) Notwithstanding anything in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, every offence under this Act except the offences referred to in sub-section (6) of section 212 shall be deemed to be non-cognizable within the meaning of the said Code.

(2) No court shall take cognizance of any offence under this Act which is alleged to have been committed by any company or any officer thereof, except on the complaint in writing of the Registrar, a shareholder of the company, or of a person authorised by the Central Government in that behalf: Provided that the court may take cognizance of offences relating to issue and transfer of securities and non-payment of dividend, on a complaint in writing, by a person authorised by the Securities and Exchange Board of India: Provided further that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a prosecution by a company of any of its officers.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, where the complainant under sub-section (2) is the Registrar or a person authorised by the Central Government, the presence of such officer before the Court trying the offences shall not be necessary unless the court requires his personal attendance at the trial.

(4) The provisions of sub-section (2) shall not apply to any action taken by the liquidator of a company in respect of any offence alleged to have been committed in respect of any of the matters in Chapter XX or in any other provision of this Act relating to winding up of companies.

Explanation.—The liquidator of a company shall not be deemed to be an officer of the company within the meaning of sub-section (2).

440. Transitional provisions

Any offence committed under this Act, which is triable by a Special Court shall, until a Special Court is established, be tried by a Court of Session exercising jurisdiction over the area, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973: Provided that nothing contained in this section shall affect the powers of the High Court under section 407 of the Code to transfer any case or class of cases taken cognizance by a Court of Session under this section.

  1. Compounding of certain offences

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, any offence punishable under this Act (whether committed by a company or any officer thereof) with fine only, may, either before or after the institution of any prosecution, be compounded by—

(a) the Tribunal; or

(b) where the maximum amount of fine which may be imposed for such offence does not exceed five lakh rupees, by the Regional Director or any officer authorised by the Central Government, on payment or credit, by the company or, as the case may be, the officer, to the Central Government of such sum as that Tribunal or the Regional Director or any officer authorised by the Central Government, as the case may be, may specify: Provided that the sum so specified shall not, in any case, exceed the maximum amount of the fine which may be imposed for the offence so compounded: Provided further that in specifying the sum required to be paid or credited for the compounding of an offence under this sub-section, the sum, if any, paid by way of additional fee under sub-section (2) of section 403 shall be taken into account: Provided also that any offence covered under this sub-section by any company or its officer shall not be compounded if the investigation against such company has been initiated or is pending under this Act.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to an offence committed by a company or its officer within a period of three years from the date on which a similar offence committed by it or him was compounded under this section. Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(a) any second or subsequent offence committed after the expiry of a period of three years from the date on which the offence was previously compounded, shall be deemed to be a first offence;

(b) “Regional Director” means a person appointed by the Central Government as a Regional Director for the purposes of this Act.

(3) (a) Every application for the compounding of an offence shall be made to the Registrar who shall forward the same, together with his comments thereon, to the Tribunal or the Regional Director or any officer authorised by the Central Government, as the case may be.

(b) Where any offence is compounded under this section, whether before or after the institution of any prosecution, an intimation thereof shall be given by the company to the Registrar within seven days from the date on which the offence is so compounded.

(c) Where any offence is compounded before the institution of any prosecution, no prosecution shall be instituted in relation to such offence, either by the Registrar or be any shareholder of the company or by any person authorised by the Central Government against the offender in relation to whom the offence is so compounded.

(d) Where the compounding of any offence is made after the institution of any prosecution, such compounding shall be brought by the Registrar in writing, to the notice of the court in which the prosecution is pending and on such notice of the compounding of the offence being given, the company or its officer in relation to whom the offence is so compounded shall be discharged.

(4) The Tribunal or the Regional Director or any officer authorised by the Central Government, as the case may be, while dealing with a proposal for the compounding of an offence for a default in compliance with any provision of this Act which requires a company or its officer to file or register with, or deliver or send to, the Registrar any return, account or other document, may direct, by an order, if it or he thinks fit to do so, any officer or other employee of the company to file or register with, or on payment of the fee, and the additional fee, required to be paid under section 403, such return, account or other document within such time as may be specified in the order.

(5) Any officer or other employee of the company who fails to comply with any order made by the Tribunal or the Regional Director or any officer authorised by the Central Government under sub-section (4) shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine not exceeding one lakh rupees, or with both.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973,—

(a) any offence which is punishable under this Act, with imprisonment or fine, or with imprisonment or fine or with both, shall be compoundable with the permission of the Special Court, in accordance with the procedure laid down in that Act for compounding of offences;

(b) any offence which is punishable under this Act with imprisonment only or with imprisonment and also with fine shall not be compoundable.

(7) No offence specified in this section shall be compounded except under and in accordance with the provisions of this section.

442. Mediation and Conciliation Panel

(1) The Central Government shall maintain a panel of experts to be called as the Mediation and Conciliation Panel consisting of such number of experts having such qualifications as may be prescribed for mediation between the parties during the pendency of any proceedings before the Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal under this Act.

(2) Any of the parties to the proceedings may, at any time during the proceedings before the Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, apply to the Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, in such form along with such fees as may be prescribed, for referring the matter pertaining to such proceedings to the Mediation and Conciliation Panel and the Central Government or Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, shall appoint one or more experts from the panel referred to in sub-section (1).

(3) The Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal before which any proceeding is pending may, suo motu, refer any matter pertaining to such proceeding to such number of experts from the Mediation and Conciliation Panel as the Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, deems fit.

(4) The fee and other terms and conditions of experts of the Mediation and Conciliation Panel shall be such as may be prescribed.

(5) The Mediation and Conciliation Panel shall follow such procedure as may be prescribed and dispose of the matter referred to it within a period of three months from the date of such reference and forward its recommendations to the Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.

(6) Any party aggreived by the recommendation of the Mediation and Conciliation Panel may file objections to the Central Government or the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be.

443. Power of Central Government to appoint company prosecutors

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the Central Government may appoint generally, or for any case, or in any case, or for any specified class of cases in any local area, one or more persons, as company prosecutors for the conduct of prosecutions arising out of this Act and the persons so appointed as company prosecutors shall have all the powers and privileges conferred by the Code on Public Prosecutors appointed under section 24 of the Code.

444. Appeal against acquittal

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the Central Government may, in any case arising under this Act, direct any company prosecutor or authorise any other person either by name or by virtue of his office, to present an appeal from an order of acquittal passed by any court, other than a High Court, and an appeal presented by such prosecutor or other person shall be deemed to have been validly presented to the appellate court.

445. Compensation for accusation without reasonable cause

The provisions of section 250 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 shall apply mutatis mutandis to compensation for accusation without reasonable cause before the Special Court or the Court of Session.

446. Application of fines

The court imposing any fine under this Act may direct that the whole or any part thereof shall be applied in or towards payment of the costs of the proceedings, or in or towards the payment of a reward to the person on whose information the proceedings were instituted.

447. Punishment for fraud

Without prejudice to any liability including repayment of any debt under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, any person who is found to be guilty of fraud, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine which shall not be less than the amount involved in the fraud, but which may extend to three times the amount involved in the fraud: Provided that where the fraud in question involves public interest, the term of imprisonment shall not be less than three years.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section—

(i) “fraud” in relation to affairs of a company or any body corporate, includes any act, omission, concealment of any fact or abuse of position committed by any person or any other person with the connivance in any manner, with intent to deceive, to gain undue advantage from, or to injure the interests of, the company or its shareholders or its creditors or any other person, whether or not there is any wrongful gain or wrongful loss;

(ii) “wrongful gain” means the gain by unlawful means of property to which the person gaining is not legally entitled;

(iii) “wrongful loss” means the loss by unlawful means of property to which the person losing is legally entitled.

448. Punishment for false statement

Save as otherwise provided in this Act, if in any return, report, certificate, financial statement, prospectus, statement or other document required by, or for, the purposes of any of the provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder, any person makes a statement,—

(a) which is false in any material particulars, knowing it to be false; or

(b) which omits any material fact, knowing it to be material, he shall be liable under section 447.

449. Punishment for false evidence

Save as otherwise provided in this Act, if any person intentionally gives false evidence—

(a) upon any examination on oath or solemn affirmation, authorised under this Act; or

(b) in any affidavit, deposition or solemn affirmation, in or about the winding up of any company under this Act, or otherwise in or about any matter arising under this Act, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to seven years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees.

450. Punishment where no specific penalty or punishment is provided

If a company or any officer of a company or any other person contravenes any of the provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder, or any condition, limitation or restriction subject to which any approval, sanction, consent, confirmation, recognition, direction or exemption in relation to any matter has been accorded, given or granted, and for which no penalty or punishment is provided elsewhere in this Act, the company and every officer of the company who is in default or such other person shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees, and where the contravention is continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to one thousand rupees for every day after the first during which the contravention continues.

451. Punishment in case of repeated default

If a company or an officer of a company commits an offence punishable either with fine or with imprisonment and where the same offence is committed for the second or subsequent occasions within a period of three years, then, that company and every officer thereof who is in default shall be punishable with twice the amount of fine for such offence in addition to any imprisonment provided for that offence.

452. Punishment for wrongful withholding of property

(1) If any officer or employee of a company—

(a) wrongfully obtains possession of any property, including cash of the company; or

(b) having any such property including cash in his possession, wrongfully withholds it or knowingly applies it for the purposes other than those expressed or directed in the articles and authorised by this Act, he shall, on the complaint of the company or of any member or creditor or contributory thereof, be punishable with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

(2) The Court trying an offence under sub-section (1) may also order such officer or employee to deliver up or refund, within a time to be fixed by it, any such property or cash wrongfully obtained or wrongfully withheld or knowingly misapplied, the benefits that have been derived from such property or cash or in default, to undergo imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years.

453. Punishment for improper use of “Limited” or “Private Limited”

If any person or persons trade or carry on business under any name or title, of which the word “Limited” or the words “Private Limited” or any contraction or imitation thereof is or are the last word or words, that person or each of those persons shall, unless duly incorporated with limited liability, or unless duly incorporated as a private company with limited liability, as the case may be, punishable with fine which shall not be less than five hundred rupees but may extend to two thousand rupees for every day for which that name or title has been used.

454. Adjudication of penalties

(1) The Central Government may, by an order published in the Official Gazette, appoint as many officers of the Central Government, not below the rank of Registrar, as adjudicating officers for adjudging penalty under the provisions of this Act in the manner as may be prescribed.

(2) The Central Government shall while appointing adjudicating officers, specify their jurisdiction in the order under sub-section (1).

(3) The adjudicating officer may, by an order impose the penalty on the company and the officer who is in default stating any non-compliance or default under the relevant provision of the Act.

(4) The adjudicating officer shall, before imposing any penalty, give a reasonable opportunity of being heard to such company and the officer who is in default.

(5) Any person aggrieved by an order made by the adjudicating officer under sub-section (3) may prefer an appeal to the Regional Director having jurisdiction in the matter.

(6) Every appeal under sub-section (5) shall be filed within sixty days from the date on which the copy of the order made by the adjudicating officer is received by the aggrieved person and shall be in such form, manner and be accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed.

(7) The Regional Director may, after giving the parties to the appeal an opportunity of being heard, pass such order as he thinks fit, confirming, modifying or setting aside the order appealed against.

(8) (i) Where company does not pay the penalty imposed by the adjudicating officer or the Regional Director within a period of ninety days from the date of the receipt of the copy of the order, the company shall be punishable with fine which shall not be less than twenty five thousand rupees but which may extend to five lakh rupees.

(ii) Where an officer of a company who is in default does not pay the penalty within a period of ninety days from the date of the receipt of the copy of the order, such office shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

455. Dormant company

(1) Where a company is formed and registered under this Act for a future project or to hold an asset or intellectual property and has no significant accounting transaction, such a company or an inactive company may make an application to the Registrar in such manner as may be prescribed for obtaining the status of a dormant company.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(i) “inactive company” means a company which has not been carrying on any business or operation, or has not made any significant accounting transaction during the last two financial years, or has not filed financial statements and annual returns during the last two financial years;

(ii) “significant accounting transaction” means any transaction other than—

(a) payment of fees by a company to the Registrar;

(b) payments made by it to fulfil the requirements of this Act or any other law;

(c) allotment of shares to fulfil the requirements of this Act; and

(d) payments for maintenance of its office and records.

(2) The Registrar on consideration of the application shall allow the status of a dormant company to the applicant and issue a certificate in such form as may be prescribed to that effect.

(3) The Registrar shall maintain a register of dormant companies in such form as may be prescribed.

(4) In case of a company which has not filed financial statements or annual returns for two financial years consecutively, the Registrar shall issue a notice to that company and enter the name of such company in the register maintained for dormant companies.

(5) A dormant company shall have such minimum number of directors, file such documents and pay such annual fee as may be prescribed to the Registrar to retain its dormant status in the register and may become an active company on an application made in this behalf accompanied by such documents and fee as may be prescribed.

(6) The Registrar shall strike off the name of a dormant company from the register of dormant companies, which has failed to comply with the requirements of this section.

456. Protection of action taken in good faith

No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Government or any officer of the Government or any other person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act or of any rules or orders made thereunder, or in respect of the publication by or under the authority of the Government or such officer, of any report, paper or proceedings.

457. Nondisclosure of information in certain cases

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the Registrar, any officer of the Government or any other person shall not be compelled to disclose to any court, Tribunal or other authority, the source from where he got any information which—

(a) has led the Central Government to order an investigation under section 210; or

(b) is or has been material or relevant in connection with such investigation.

458. Delegation by Central Governemnt of its powers and functions

(1) The Central Government may, by notification, and subject to such conditions, limitations and restrictions as may be specified therein, delegate any of its powers or functions under this Act other than the power to make rules to such authority or officer as may be specified in the notification: Provided that the powers to enforce the provisions contained in section 194 and section 195 relating to forward dealing and insider trading shall be delegated to Securities and Exchange Board for listed companies or the companies which intend to get their securities listed and in such case, any officer authorised by the Securities and Exchange Board shall have the power to file a complaint in the court of competent jurisdiction.

(2) A copy of every notification issued under sub-section (1) shall, as soon as may be after it is issued, be laid before each House of Parliament.

459. Powers of Central Government or Tribunal to accord approval, etc., subject to conditions and to prescribe fees on applications

(1) Where the Central Government or the Tribunal is required or authorised by any provision of this Act—

(a) to accord approval, sanction, consent, confirmation or recognition to, or in relation to, any matter; or

(b) to give any direction in relation to any matter; or

(c) to grant any exemption in relation to any matter, then, the Central Government or the Tribunal may in the absence of anything to the contrary contained in that provision or any other provision of this Act, accord, give or grant such approval, sanction, consent, confirmation, recognition, direction or exemption, subject to such conditions, limitations or restrictions as it may think fit to impose and may, in the case of a contravention of any such condition, limitation or restriction, rescind or withdraw such approval, sanction, consent, confirmation, recognition, direction or exemption.

(2) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, every application which may be, or is required to be, made to the Central Government or the Tribunal under any provision of this Act—

(a) in respect of any approval, sanction, consent, confirmation or recognition to be accorded by that Government or the Tribunal to, or in relation to, any matter; or

(b) in respect of any direction or exemption to be given or granted by that Government or the Tribunal in relation to any matter; or

(c) in respect of any other matter, shall be accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed: Provided that different fees may be prescribed for applications in respect of different matters or in case of applications by different classes of companies.

460. Condonation of delay in certain cases

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act,—

(a) where any application required to be made to the Central Government under any provision of this Act in respect of any matter is not made within the time specified therein, that Government may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, condone the delay; and

(b) where any document required to be filed with the Registrar under any provision of this Act is not filed within the time specified therein, the Central Government may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, condone the delay.

461. Annual report by Central Government

The Central Government shall cause a general annual report on the working and administration of this Act to be prepared and laid before each House of Parliament within one year of the close of the year to which the report relates.

462. Power to exempt class or classes of companies from provisions of this Act

(1) The Central Government may in the public interest, by notification direct that any of the provisions of this Act,—

(a) shall not apply to such class or classes of companies; or

(b) shall apply to the class or classes of companies with such exceptions, modifications and adaptations as may be specified in the notification.

(2) A copy of every notification proposed to be issued under sub-section (1), shall be laid in draft before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in disapproving the issue of the notification or both Houses agree in making any modification in the notification, the notification shall not be issued or, as the case may be, shall be issued only in such modified form as may be agreed upon by both the Houses.

463. Power of court to grant relief in certain cases

(1) If in any proceeding for negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust against an officer of a company, it appears to the court hearing the case that he is or may be liable in respect of the negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust, but that he has acted honestly and reasonably, and that having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including those connected with his appointment, he ought fairly to be excused, the court may relieve him, either wholly or partly, from his liability on such term, as it may think fit: Provided that in a criminal proceeding under this sub-section, the court shall have no power to grant relief from any civil liability which may attach to an officer in respect of such negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust.

(2) Where any such officer has reason to apprehend that any proceeding will or might be brought against him in respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust, he may apply to the High Court for relief and the High Court on such application shall have the same power to relieve him as it would have had if it had been a court before which a proceedings against that officer for negligence, default, breach of duty, misfeasance or breach of trust had been brought under sub-section (1).

(3) No court shall grant any relief to any officer under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) unless it has, by notice served in the manner specified by it, required the Registrar and such other person, if any, as it thinks necessary, to show cause why such relief should not be granted.

464. Prohibition of association or partnership of persons exceeding certain number

(1) No association or partnership consisting of more than such number of persons as may be prescribed shall be formed for the purpose of carrying on any business that has for its object the acquisition of gain by the association or partnership or by the individual members thereof, unless it is registered as a company under this Act or is formed under any other law for the time being in force: Provided that the number of persons which may be prescribed under this sub-section shall not exceed one hundred.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to—

(a) a Hindu undivided family carrying on any business; or

(b) an association or partnership, if it is formed by professionals who are governed by special Acts.

(3) Every member of an association or partnership carrying on business in contravention of sub-section (1) shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees and shall also be personally liable for all liabilities incurred in such business.

465. Repeal of certain enactments and savings

(1) The Companies Act, 1956 and the Registration of Companies (Sikkim) Act, 1961 (hereafter in this section referred to as the repealed enactments) shall stand repealed: Provided that the provisions of Part IX A of the Companies Act, 1956 shall be applicable mutatis mutandis to a Producer Company in a manner as if the Companies Act, 1956 has not been repealed until a special Act is enacted for Producer Companies: Provided further that until a date is notified by the Central Government under subsection (1) of Section 434 for transfer of all matters, proceedings or cases to the Tribunal, the provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 in regard to the jurisdiction, powers, authority and functions of the Board of Company Law Administration and court shall continue to apply as if the Companies Act, 1956 has not been repealed: Provided also that provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 referred in the notification issued under section 67 of the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 shall, until the relevant notification under such section applying relevant corresponding provisions of this Act to limited liability partnerships is issued, continue to apply as if the Companies Act, 1956 has not been repealed.

(2) Notwithstanding the repeal under sub-section (1) of the repealed enactments,—

(a) anything done or any action taken or purported to have been done or taken, including any rule, notification, inspection, order or notice made or issued or any appointment or declaration made or any operation undertaken or any direction given or any proceeding taken or any penalty, punishment, forfeiture or fine imposed under the repealed enactments shall, insofar as it is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act;

(b) subject to the provisions of clause (a), any order, rule, notification, regulation, appointment, conveyance, mortgage, deed, document or agreement made, fee directed, resolution passed, direction given, proceeding taken, instrument executed or issued, or thing done under or in pursuance of any repealed enactment shall, if in force at the commencement of this Act, continue to be in force, and shall have effect as if made, directed, passed, given, taken, executed, issued or done under or in pursuance of this Act;

(c) any principle or rule of law, or established jurisdiction, form or course of pleading, practice or procedure or existing usage, custom, privilege, restriction or exemption shall not be affected, notwithstanding that the same respectively may have been in any manner affirmed or recognised or derived by, in, or from, the repealed enactments;

(d) any person appointed to any office under or by virtue of any repealed enactment shall be deemed to have been appointed to that office under or by virtue of this Act;

(e) any jurisdiction, custom, liability, right, title, privilege, restriction, exemption, usage, practice, procedure or other matter or thing not in existence or in force shall not be revised or restored;

(f) the offices existing on the commencement of this Act for the registration of companies shall continue as if they have been established under the provisions of this Act;

(g) the incorporation of companies registered under the repealed enactments shall continue to be valid and the provisions of this Act shall apply to such companies as if they were registered under this Act;

(h) all registers and all funds constituted and established under the repealed enactments shall be deemed to be registers and funds constituted or established under the corresponding provisions of this Act;

(i) any prosecution instituted under the repealed enactments and pending immediately before the commencement of this Act before any Court shall, subject to

the provisions of this Act, continue to be heard and disposed of by the said Court;

(j) any inspection, investigation or inquiry ordered to be done under the Companies Act, 1956 shall continue to be proceeded with as if such inspection, investigation or inquiry has been ordered under the corresponding provisions of this Act; and

(k) any matter filed with the Registrar, Regional Director or the Central Government under the Companies Act, 1956 before the commencement of this Act and not fully addressed at that time shall be concluded by the Registrar, Regional Director or the Central Government, as the case may be, in terms of that Act, despite its repeal.

(3) The mention of particular matters in sub-section (2) shall not be held to prejudice the general application of section 6 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 with regard to the effect of repeal of the repealed enactments as if the Registration of Companies (Sikkim) Act, 1961 were also a Central Act.

466. Dissolution of Company Law Board and consequential provisions

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 465, the Board of Company Law Administration constituted under the Companies Act, 1956 (hereafter in this section referred to as the Company Law Board) shall stand dissolved on the constitution of the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal: Provided that until the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal is constituted, the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Members of the Company Law Board immediately before the constitution of the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal, who fulfil the qualifications and requirements provided under this Act regarding appointment as President or Chairperson or Member of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, shall function as President, Chairperson or Member of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal: Provided further that every officer or other employee, who had been appointed on deputation basis to the Company Law Board, shall, on such dissolution,—

(i) become officer or employee of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, if he fulfils the qualifications and requirements under this Act; and

(ii) stand reverted to his parent cadre, Ministry or Department, in any other case: Provided also that every officer and the other employee of the Company Law Board, employed on regular basis by that Board, shall become, on and from such dissolution the officer and other employee, respectively, of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal with the same rights and privileges as to pension, gratuity and other like benefits as would have been admissible to him if he had continued to serve that Board and shall continue to do so unless and until his employment in the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is duly terminated or until his remuneration, terms and conditions of employment are duly altered by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be: Provided also that notwithstanding anything contained in the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 or in any other law for the time being in force, any officer or other employee who becomes an officer or other employee of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal under the preceding proviso shall not be entitled to any compensation under this Act or under any other law for the time being in force and no such claim shall be entertained by any court, tribunal or other authority: Provided also that where the Company Law Board has etablished a provident fund, superannuation fund, welfare fund or other fund for the benefit of the officers and other employees employed in that Board, the monies relatable to the officers and other employees who have become officers or employees of the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal shall, out of the monies standing to the credit of such provident fund, superannuation fund, welfare fund or other fund, stand transferred to, and vest in, the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal, as the case may be, and such monies which stand so transferred shall be dealt with by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) The persons holding the offices of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and Members, and officers and other employees of the Company Law Board immediately before the constitution of the Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal who are not covered under proviso to sub-section

(1) shall vacate their respective offices on such constitution and no such Chairman, Vice- Chairman and Members and officers or other employees shall be entitled to claim any compensation for the premature termination of the term of his office or of any contract of service, if any.

467. Power of Central Government to amend Schedules

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, the Central Government may, by notification, alter any of the regulations, rules, Tables, forms and other provisions contained in any of the Schedules to this Act.

(2) Any alteration notified under sub-section (1) shall have effect as if enacted in this Act and shall come into force on the date of the notification, unless the notification otherwise directs:

Provided that no such alteration in Table F of Schedule I shall apply to any company registered before the date of such alteration.

(3) Every alteration made by the Central Government under sub-section (1) shall be laid as soon as may be after it is made before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the alteration, or both Houses agree that the alteration should not be made, the alteration shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done in pursuance of that alteration.

468. Powers of Central Government to make rules relating to winding up

(1) The Central Government shall, make rules consistent with the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 providing for all matters relating to the winding up of companies, which by this Act, are to be prescribed, and may make rules providing for all such matters, as may be prescribed.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(i) as to the mode of proceedings to be held for winding up of a company by the Tribunal;

(ii) for the voluntary winding up of companies, whether by members or by creditors;

(iii) for the holding of meetings of creditors and members in connection with proceedings under section 230;

(iv) for giving effect to the provisions of this Act as to the reduction of the capital;

(v) generally for all applications to be made to the Tribunal under the provisions of this Act;

(vi) the holding and conducting of meetings to ascertain the wishes of creditors and contributories;

(vii) the settling of lists of contributories and the rectifying of the register of members where required, and collecting and applying the assets;

(viii) the payment, delivery, conveyance, surrender or transfer of money, property, books or papers to the liquidator;

(ix) the making of calls; and

(x) the fixing of a time within which debts and claims shall be proved.

(3) All rules made by the Supreme Court on the matters referred to in this section as it stood immediately before the commencement of this Act and in force at such commencement, shall continue to be in force, till such time the rules are made by the Central Government and any reference to the High Court in relation to winding up of a company in such rules shall be construed as a reference to the Tribunal.

468. Powers of Central Government to make rules relating to winding up

(1) The Central Government shall, make rules consistent with the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 providing for all matters relating to the winding up of companies, which by this Act, are to be prescribed, and may make rules providing for all such matters, as may be prescribed.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(i) as to the mode of proceedings to be held for winding up of a company by the Tribunal;

(ii) for the voluntary winding up of companies, whether by members or by creditors;

(iii) for the holding of meetings of creditors and members in connection with proceedings under section 230;

(iv) for giving effect to the provisions of this Act as to the reduction of the capital;

(v) generally for all applications to be made to the Tribunal under the provisions of this Act;

(vi) the holding and conducting of meetings to ascertain the wishes of creditors and contributories;

(vii) the settling of lists of contributories and the rectifying of the register of members where required, and collecting and applying the assets;

(viii) the payment, delivery, conveyance, surrender or transfer of money, property, books or papers to the liquidator;

(ix) the making of calls; and

(x) the fixing of a time within which debts and claims shall be proved.

(3) All rules made by the Supreme Court on the matters referred to in this section as it stood immediately before the commencement of this Act and in force at such commencement, shall continue to be in force, till such time the rules are made by the Central Government and any reference to the High Court in relation to winding up of a company in such rules shall be construed as a reference to the Tribunal.

469. Power of Central Government to make rules

(1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Government may make rules for all or any of the matters which by this Act are required to be, or may be, prescribed or in respect of which provision is to be or may be made by rules.

(3) Any rule made under sub-section (1) may provide that a contravention thereof shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and where the contravention is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for every day after the first during which such contravention continues.

(4) Every rule made under this section and every regulation made by Securities and Exchange Board under this Act, shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or regulation or both Houses agree that the rule or regulation should not be made, the rule or regulation shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or regulation.

470. Power to remove difficulties

(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as appear to it to be necessary or expedient for removing the difficulty: Provided that no such order shall be made after the expiry of a period of five years from the date of commencement of section 1 of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

Schedule I

(See sections 4 and 5)

TABLE -A

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES

1st The name of the company is ‘‘…………………………….Limited / Private Limited’’.

2nd The registered office of the company will be situated in the State of……………………………..

3rd (a) The objects to be pursued by the company on its incorporation are:—

(b) Matters which are necessary for furtherance of the objects specified in clause 3(a) are:—

4th The liability of the member(s) is limited and this liability is limited to the amount unpaid, if any, on the shares held by them.

5th The share capital of the company is…………………………….rupees, divided into…………………………….shares of…………………………….rupees each.

6th We, the several persons, whose names and addresses are subscribed, are desirous of being formed into a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association, and we respectively agree to take the number of shares in the capital of the company set against our respective names:—

Names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of subscribersNo. of shares taken by each subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of witnesses
A.B. of……..Merchant…………..Signed before me:

Signature………………….C.D. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….E.F. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….G.H. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….I.J. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….K.L. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….M.N. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….

________________

Total shares taken: ________________

7th I, whose name and address is given below, am desirous of forming a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association and agree to take all the shares in the capital of the company (Applicable in case of one person company):—

Name, address, description and occupation of subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, name, address, description and occupation of witness
A.B. ……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….

8th Shri/Smt………………, son/daughter of ………………….., resident of………… aged………… years shall be the nominee in the event of death of the sole member (Applicable in case of one person company) Dated…………………………………. the day of ……………………..

TABLE -B

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY LIMITED BY GUARANTEE AND NOT HAVING A SHARE CAPITAL

1st The name of the company is ‘‘…………………………….Limited/Private Limited’’.

2nd The registered office of the company will be situated in the State of…………………………….

3rd (a) The objects to be pursued by the company on its incorporation are:—

(b) Matters which are necessary for furtherance of the objects specified in clause 3(a) are:—

4th The liability of the member(s) is limited.

5th Every member of the company undertakes to contribute:

(i) to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up while he is a member, or within one year after he ceases to be a member, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company or of such debts and liabilities as may have been contracted before he ceases to be a member; and

(ii) to the costs, charges and expenses of winding up (and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves), such amount as may be required, not exceeding…………………………….rupees.

6th We, the several persons, whose names and addresses are subscribed, are desirous of being formed into a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association.

Names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of subscribersSignature of subscriberSignature, names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of witnesses
A.B. of……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….C.D. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….E.F. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….G.H. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….I.J. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….K.L. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….M.N. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….

7th I, whose name and address is given below, am desirous of forming a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association (Applicable in case of one person company):—

Name, address, description and occupation of subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, name, address, description and occupation of witness
A.B. ……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….

8th Shri/Smt…………., son/daugther of ………………, resident of………… aged………… years shall be the nominee in the event of death of the sole member (Applicable in case of one person company) Dated………………………. the day of …………………………

TABLE -C

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY LIMITED BY GUARANTEE AND HAVING A SHARE CAPITAL

1st The name of the company is ‘‘…………………………….Limited/Private Limited’’.

2nd The registered office of the company will be situated in the State of…………………………….

3rd (a) The objects to be pursued by the company on its incorporation are:—

(b) Matters which are necessary for furtherance of the objects specified in clause 3(a) are:—

4th The liability of the member(s) is limited.

5th Every member of the company undertakes to contribute:

(i) to the assets of the company in the event of its being wound up while he is a member, or within one year after he ceases to be a member, for payment of the debts and liabilities of the company or of such debts and liabilities as may have been contracted before he ceases to be a member; and

(ii) to the costs, charges and expenses of winding up (and for the adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves), such amount as may be required, not exceeding…………………………….rupees.

6th The share capital of the company is…………………………….rupees, divided into…………………………….shares of…………………………….rupees each

7th We, the several persons, whose names, addresses are subscribed, are desirous of being formed into a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association and we respectively agree to take the number of shares in the capital of the company set against our respective names:—

Names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of subscribersNo. of shares taken by each subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of witnesses
A.B. of……..Merchant…………..Signed before me:

Signature………………….C.D. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….E.F. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….G.H. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….I.J. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….K.L. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….M.N. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….

8th I, whose name and address is given below, am desirous of forming a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association and agree to take all the shares in the capital of the company (Applicable in case of one person company):—

Name, address, description and occupation of subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, name, address, description and occupation of witness
A.B. ……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….

9th Shri/Smt………….., son/daughter of ………………, resident of………… aged………… years shall be the nominee in the event of death of the sole member (Applicable in case of one person company) Dated………………………. the day of………………………

TABLE -D

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF AN UNLIMITED COMPANY AND NOT HAVING SHARE CAPITAL

1st The name of the company is ‘‘…………………………….Company’’.

2nd The registered office of the company will be situated in the State of…………………………….

3rd (a) The objects to be pursued by the company on its incorporation are:—

(b) Matters which are necessary for furtherance of the objects specified in clause 3(a) are:—

4th The liability of the member(s) is unlimited.

5th We, the several persons, whose names and addresses are subscribed are desirous of being formed into a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association.

Names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of subscribersSignature of subscriberSignature, names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of witnesses
A.B. of……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….C.D. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….E.F. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….G.H. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….I.J. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….K.L. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….M.N. of……..Merchant Signed before me:

Signature………………….

6th I, whose name and address is given below, am desirous of forming a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association (Applicable in case of one person company):—

Name, address, description and occupation of subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, name, address, description and occupation of witness
A.B. ……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….

7th Shri/Smt………., son/daughter of …………………, resident of………… aged………… years shall be the nominee in the event of death of the sole member (Applicable in case of one person company) Dated…………………. the day of………………..

TABLE -E

MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF AN UNLIMITED COMPANY AND HAVING SHARE CAPITAL

1st The name of the company is ‘‘…………………………….Company’’.

2nd The registered office of the company will be situated in the State of……………………………..

3rd (a) The objects to be pursued by the company on its incorporation are:—

(b) Matters which are necessary for furtherance of the objects specified in clause 3(a) are:—

4th The liability of the member(s) is unlimited.

5th The share capital of the company is…………………………….rupees, divided into…………………………….shares of…………………………….rupees each.

6th We, the several persons, whose names, and addresses are subscribed, are desirous of being formed into a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association and we respectively agree to take the number of shares in the capital of the company set against our respective names:—

Names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of subscribersNo. of shares taken by each subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, names, addresses, descriptions and occupations of witnesses
A.B. of……..Merchant…………..Signed before me:

Signature………………….C.D. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….E.F. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….G.H. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….I.J. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….K.L. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….M.N. of……..Merchant………….. Signed before me:

Signature………………….

7th I, whose name and address is given below, am desirous of forming a company in pursuance of this memorandum of association and agree to take all the shares in the capital of the company (Applicable in case of one person company):—

Name, address, description and occupation of subscriberSignature of subscriberSignature, name, address, description and occupation of witness
A.B. ……..MerchantSigned before me:

Signature………………….

8th Shri/Smt……….., son/daughter of ……………….., resident of………… aged………… years shall be the nominee in the event of death of the sole member (Applicable in case of one person company) Dated………………………… the day of ………………………..

TABLE -F

ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY LIMITED BY SHARES

Interpretation

  1. (1) In these regulations—

(a) “the Act” means the Companies Act, 2013,

(b) “the seal” means the common seal of the company.

(2) Unless the context otherwise requires, words or expressions contained in these regulations shall bear the same meaning as in the Act or any statutory modification thereof in force at the date at which these regulations become binding on the company.

Share capital and variation of rights

  1. 1. Subject to the provisions of the Act and these Articles, the shares in the capital of the company shall be under the control of the Directors who may issue, allot or otherwise dispose of the same or any of them to such persons, in such proportion and on such terms and conditions and either at a premium or at par and at such time as they may from time to time think fit.
  2. (i) Every person whose name is entered as a member in the register of members shall be entitled to receive within two months after incorporation, in case of subscribers to the memorandum or after allotment or within one month after the application for the registration of transfer or transmission or within such other period as the conditions of issue shall be provided,—

(a) one certificate for all his shares without payment of any charges; or

(b) several certificates, each for one or more of his shares, upon payment of twenty rupees for each certificate after the first.

(ii) Every certificate shall be under the seal and shall specify the shares to which it relates and the amount paid-up thereon.

(iii) In respect of any share or shares held jointly by several persons, the company shall not be bound to issue more than one certificate, and delivery of a certificate for a share to one of several joint holders shall be sufficient delivery to all such holders.

  1. (i) If any share certificate be worn out, defaced, mutilated or torn or if there be no further space on the back for endorsement of transfer, then upon production and surrender thereof to the company, a new certificate may be issued in lieu thereof, and if any certificate is lost or destroyed then upon proof thereof to the satisfaction of the company and on execution of such indemnity as the company deem adequate, a new certificate in lieu thereof shall be given. Every certificate under this Article shall be issued on payment of twenty rupees for each certificate.

(ii) The provisions of Articles (2) and (3) shall mutatis mutandis apply to debentures of the company.

  1. Except as required by law, no person shall be recognised by the company as holding any share upon any trust, and the company shall not be bound by, or be compelled in any way to recognise (even when having notice thereof) any equitable, contingent, future or partial interest in any share, or any interest in any fractional part of a share, or (except only as by these regulations or by law otherwise provided) any other rights in respect of any share except an absolute right to the entirety thereof in the registered holder.
  2. (i) The company may exercise the powers of paying commissions conferred by sub-section (6) of section 40, provided that the rate per cent. or the amount of the commission paid or agreed to be paid shall be disclosed in the manner required by that section and rules made there under.

(ii) The rate or amount of the commission shall not exceed the rate or amount prescribed in rules made under sub-section (6) of section 40.

(iii) The commission may be satisfied by the payment of cash or the allotment of fully or partly paid shares or partly in the one way and partly in the other.

  1. 6. (i) If at any time the share capital is divided into different classes of shares, the rights attached to any class (unless otherwise provided by the terms of issue of the shares of that class) may, subject to the provisions of section 48, and whether or not the company is being wound up, be varied with the consent in writing of the holders of three-fourths of the issued shares of that class, or with the sanction of a special resolution passed at a separate meeting of the holders of the shares of that class. (ii) To every such separate meeting, the provisions of these regulations relating to general meetings shall mutatis mutandis apply, but so that the necessary quorum shall be at least two persons holding at least one-third of the issued shares of the class in question.
  2. The rights conferred upon the holders of the shares of any class issued with preferred or other rights shall not, unless otherwise expressly provided by the terms of issue of the shares of that class, be deemed to be varied by the creation or issue of further shares ranking pari passu therewith.
  3. 8. Subject to the provisions of section 55, any preference shares may, with the sanction of an ordinary resolution, be issued on the terms that they are to be redeemed on such terms and in such manner as the company before the issue of the shares may, by special resolution, determine.

Lien

  1. (i) The company shall have a first and paramount lien—

(a) on every share (not being a fully paid share), for all monies (whether presently payable or not) called, or payable at a fixed time, in respect of that share; and

(b) on all shares (not being fully paid shares) standing registered in the name of a single person, for all monies presently payable by him or his estate to the company: Provided that the Board of directors may at any time declare any share to be wholly or in part exempt from the provisions of this clause.

(ii) The company’s lien, if any, on a share shall extend to all dividends payable and bonuses declared from time to time in respect of such shares.

  1. The company may sell, in such manner as the Board thinks fit, any shares on which the company has a lien: Provided that no sale shall be made—

(a) unless a sum in respect of which the lien exists is presently payable; or

(b) until the expiration of fourteen days after a notice in writing stating and demanding payment of such part of the amount in respect of which the lien exists as is presently payable, has been given to the registered holder for the time being of the share or the person entitled thereto by reason of his death or insolvency.

  1. (i) To give effect to any such sale, the Board may authorise some person to transfer the shares sold to the purchaser thereof.

(ii) The purchaser shall be registered as the holder of the shares comprised in any such transfer.

(iii) The purchaser shall not be bound to see to the application of the purchase money, nor shall his title to the shares be affected by any irregularity or invalidity in the proceedings in reference to the sale.

  1. (i) The proceeds of the sale shall be received by the company and applied in payment of such part of the amount in respect of which the lien exists as is presently payable.

(ii) The residue, if any, shall, subject to a like lien for sums not presently payable as existed upon the shares before the sale, be paid to the person entitled to the shares at the date of the sale.

Calls on shares

  1. (i) The Board may, from time to time, make calls upon the members in respect of any monies unpaid on their shares (whether on account of the nominal value of the shares or by way of premium) and not by the conditions of allotment thereof made payable at fixed times: Provided that no call shall exceed one-fourth of the nominal value of the share or be payable at less than one month from the date fixed for the payment of the last preceding call.

(ii) Each member shall, subject to receiving at least fourteen days’ notice specifying the time or times and place of payment, pay to the company, at the time or times and place so specified, the amount called on his shares.

(iii) A call may be revoked or postponed at the discretion of the Board.

  1. A call shall be deemed to have been made at the time when the resolution of the Board authorising the call was passed and may be required to be paid by instalments.
  2. The joint holders of a share shall be jointly and severally liable to pay all calls in respect thereof.
  3. (i) If a sum called in respect of a share is not paid before or on the day appointed for payment thereof, the person from whom the sum is due shall pay interest thereon from the day appointed for payment thereof to the time of actual payment at ten per cent. per annum or at such lower rate, if any, as the Board may determine.

(ii) The Board shall be at liberty to waive payment of any such interest wholly or in part.

  1. (i) Any sum which by the terms of issue of a share becomes payable on allotment or at any fixed date, whether on account of the nominal value of the share or by way of premium, shall, for the purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be a call duly made and payable on the date on which by the terms of issue such sum becomes payable.

(ii) In case of non-payment of such sum, all the relevant provisions of these regulations as to payment of interest and expenses, forfeiture or otherwise shall apply as if such sum had become payable by virtue of a call duly made and notified.

  1. The Board—

(a) may, if it thinks fit, receive from any member willing to advance the same, all or any part of the monies uncalled and unpaid upon any shares held by him; and

(b) upon all or any of the monies so advanced, may (until the same would, but for such advance, become presently payable) pay interest at such rate not exceeding, unless the company in general meeting shall otherwise direct, twelve per cent. per annum, as may be agreed upon between the Board and the member paying the sum in advance.

Transfer of shares

  1. (i) The instrument of transfer of any share in the company shall be executed by or on behalf of both the transferor and transferee.

(ii) The transferor shall be deemed to remain a holder of the share until the name of the transferee is entered in the register of members in respect thereof.

  1. The Board may, subject to the right of appeal conferred by section 58 decline to register—

(a) the transfer of a share, not being a fully paid share, to a person of whom they do not approve; or

(b) any transfer of shares on which the company has a lien.

  1. The Board may decline to recognise any instrument of transfer unless—

(a) the instrument of transfer is in the form as prescribed in rules made under sub-section (1) of section 56;

(b) the instrument of transfer is accompanied by the certificate of the shares to which it relates, and such other evidence as the Board may reasonably require to show the right of the transferor to make the transfer; and

(c) the instrument of transfer is in respect of only one class of shares.

  1. On giving not less than seven days’ previous notice in accordance with section 91 and rules made thereunder, the registration of transfers may be suspended at such times and for such periods as the Board may from time to time determine: Provided that such registration shall not be suspended for more than thirty days at any one time or for more than forty-five days in the aggregate in any year.
  2. (i) On the death of a member, the survivor or survivors where the member was a joint holder, and his nominee or nominees or legal representatives where he was a sole holder, shall be the only persons recognised by the company as having any title to his interest in the shares.

Transmission of shares

(ii) Nothing in clause (i) shall release the estate of a deceased joint holder from any liability in respect of any share which had been jointly held by him with other persons.

  1. 24. (i) Any person becoming entitled to a share in consequence of the death or insolvency of a member may, upon such evidence being produced as may from time to time properly be required by the Board and subject as hereinafter provided, elect, either—

(a) to be registered himself as holder of the share; or

(b) to make such transfer of the share as the deceased or insolvent member could have made.

(ii) The Board shall, in either case, have the same right to decline or suspend registration as it would have had, if the deceased or insolvent member had transferred the share before his death or insolvency.

  1. (i) If the person so becoming entitled shall elect to be registered as holder of the share himself, he shall deliver or send to the company a notice in writing signed by him stating that he so elects.

(ii) If the person aforesaid shall elect to transfer the share, he shall testify his election by executing a transfer of the share.

(iii) All the limitations, restrictions and provisions of these regulations relating to the right to transfer and the registration of transfers of shares shall be applicable to any such notice or transfer as aforesaid as if the death or insolvency of the member had not occurred and the notice or transfer were a transfer signed by that member.

  1. A person becoming entitled to a share by reason of the death or insolvency of the holder shall be entitled to the same dividends and other advantages to which he would be entitled if he were the registered holder of the share, except that he shall not, before being registered as a member in respect of the share, be entitled in respect of it to exercise any right conferred by membership in relation to meetings of the company: Provided that the Board may, at any time, give notice requiring any such person to elect either to be registered himself or to transfer the share, and if the notice is not complied with within ninety days, the Board may thereafter withhold payment of all dividends, bonuses or other monies payable in respect of the share, until the requirements of the notice have been complied with.
  2. In case of a One Person Company—

(i) on the death of the sole member, the person nominated by such member shall be the person recognised by the company as having title to all the shares of the member;

(ii) the nominee on becoming entitled to such shares in case of the member’s death shall be informed of such event by the Board of the company;

(iii) such nominee shall be entitled to the same dividends and other rights and liabilities to which such sole member of the company was entitled or liable;

(iv) on becoming member, such nominee shall nominate any other person with the prior written consent of such person who, shall in the event of the death of the member, become the member of the company.

Forfeiture of shares

  1. If a member fails to pay any call, or instalment of a call, on the day appointed for payment thereof, the Board may, at any time thereafter during such time as any part of the call or instalment remains unpaid, serve a notice on him requiring payment of so much of the call or instalment as is unpaid, together with any interest which may have accrued.
  2. The notice aforesaid shall—

(a) name a further day (not being earlier than the expiry of fourteen days from the date of service of the notice) on or before which the payment required by the notice is to be made; and

(b) state that, in the event of non-payment on or before the day so named, the shares in respect of which the call was made shall be liable to be forfeited.

Schedule II

(See section 123)

USEFUL LIVES TO COMPUTE DEPRECIATION

PART ‘A’

  1. Depreciation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an asset over its useful life. The depreciable amount of an asset is the cost of an asset or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. The useful life of an asset is the period over which an asset is expected to be available for use by an entity, or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from the asset by the entity.
  2. For the purpose of this Schedule, the term depreciation includes amortisation.
  3. Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of paragraph 1,—

(i) In case of such class of companies, as may be prescribed and whose financial statements comply with the accounting standards prescribed for such class of companies under section 133 the useful life of an asset shall not normally be different from the useful life and the residual value shall not be different from that as indicated in Part C, provided that if such a company uses a useful life or residual value which is different from the useful life or residual value indicated therein, it shall disclose the justification for the same.

(ii) In respect of other companies the useful life of an asset shall not be longer than the useful life and the residual value shall not be higher than that prescribed in

Part C.

(iii) For intangible assets, the provisions of the Accounting Standards mentioned under sub-para (i) or (ii), as applicable, shall apply.

PART ‘B’

  1. The useful life or residual value of any specific asset, as notified for accounting purposes by a Regulatory Authority constituted under an Act of Parliament or by the Central Government shall be applied in calculating the depreciation to be provided for such asset irrespective of the requirements of this Schedule.
  2. Subject to Parts A and B above, the following are the useful lives of various tangible assets:

PART ‘C’

Nature of assets Useful Life

  1. Buildings [NESD]

(a) Buildings (other than factory buildings) RCC Frame Structure 60 Years

(b) Buildings (other than factory buildings) other than RCC Frame Structure 30 Years

(c) Factory buildings -do-

(d) Fences, wells, tube wells 5 Years

(e) Others (including temporary structure, etc.) 3 Years

II. Bridges, culverts, bunders, etc. [NESD] 30 Years

III. Roads [NESD]

(a) Carpeted roads

(i) Carpeted Roads-RCC 10 Years

(ii) Carpeted Roads-other than RCC 5 Years

(b) Non-carpeted roads 3 Years

IV. Plant and Machinery

(i) General rate applicable to plant and machinery not covered under special plant and machinery

(a) Plant and Machinery other than continuous process plant not covered under specific industries 15 Years

(b) continuous process plant for which no special rate has been prescribed under (ii) below [NESD] 8 Years

(ii) Special Plant and Machinery

(a) Plant and Machinery related to production and exhibition of

Motion Picture Films

  1. Cinematograph films—Machinery used in the production and exhibition of cinematograph films, recording and reproducing equipments, developing machines, printing machines, editing machines, synchronizers and studio lights except bulbs 13 Years
  2. Projecting equipment for exhibition of films -do-

(b) Plant and Machinery used in glass manufacturing

  1. Plant and Machinery except direct fire glass melting furnaces —

Recuperative and regenerative glass melting furnaces 13 Years

  1. Plant and Machinery except direct fire glass melting furnaces —

Moulds [NESD] 8 Years

  1. Float Glass Melting Furnaces [NESD] 10 Years

(c) Plant and Machinery used in mines and quarries—Portable underground machinery and earth moving machinery used in open cast mining [NESD] 8 Years

(d) Plant and Machinery used in Telecommunications [NESD]

  1. Towers 18 Years
  2. Telecom transceivers, switching centres, transmission and

other network equipment 13 Years

  1. Telecom—Ducts, Cables and optical fibre 18 Years
  2. Satellites -do-

(e) Plant and Machinery used in exploration, production and

refining oil and gas [NESD]

  1. Refineries 25 Years
  2. Oil and gas assets (including wells), processing plant and facilities -do-
  3. Petrochemical Plant -do-
  4. Storage tanks and related equipment -do-
  5. Pipelines 30 Years
  6. Drilling Rig -do-
  7. Field operations (above ground) Portable boilers, drilling tools,

well-head tanks, etc. 8 Years

  1. Loggers –do

(f ) Plant and Machinery used in generation, transmission and distribution

of power [NESD]

  1. Thermal/ Gas/ Combined Cycle Power Generation Plant 40 Years
  2. Hydro Power Generation Plant -do-
  3. Nuclear Power Generation Plant -do-
  4. Transmission lines, cables and other network assets -do-
  5. Wind Power Generation Plant 22 Years
  6. Electric Distribution Plant 35 Years
  7. Gas Storage and Distribution Plant 30 Years
  8. Water Distribution Plant including pipelines -do-

(g) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of steel

  1. Sinter Plant 20 Years
  2. Blast Furnace -do-
  3. Coke ovens -do-
  4. Rolling mill in steel plant -do-
  5. Basic oxygen Furnace Converter 25 Years

(h) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of non-ferrous metals

  1. Metal pot line [NESD] 40 Years
  2. Bauxite crushing and grinding section [NESD] -do-
  3. Digester Section [NESD] -do-
  4. Turbine [NESD] -do-
  5. Equipments for Calcination [NESD] -do-
  6. Copper Smelter [NESD] -do-
  7. Roll Grinder 40 Years
  8. Soaking Pit 30 Years
  9. Annealing Furnace -do-
  10. Rolling Mills -do-
  11. Equipments for Scalping, Slitting , etc. [NESD] -do-
  12. Surface Miner, Ripper Dozer, etc., used in mines 25 Years
  13. Copper refining plant [NESD] -do-

(i) Plant and Machinery used in medical and surgical operations [NESD]

  1. Electrical Machinery, X-ray and electrotherapeutic apparatus and

accessories thereto, medical, diagnostic equipments, namely,

Cat-scan, Ultrasound Machines, ECG Monitors, etc. 13 Years

  1. Other Equipments. 15 Years

(j) Plant and Machinery used in manufacture of pharmaceuticals and

chemicals [NESD]

  1. Reactors 20 Years
  2. Distillation Columns -do-
  3. Drying equipments/Centrifuges and Decanters -do-
  4. Vessel/storage tanks –do

(k) Plant and Machinery used in civil construction

  1. Concreting, Crushing, Piling Equipments and Road Making

Equipments 12 Years

  1. Heavy Lift Equipments—

Cranes with capacity of more than 100 tons 20 Years

Cranes with capacity of less than 100 tons 15 Years

  1. Transmission line, Tunneling Equipments [NESD] 10 Years
  2. Earth-moving equipments 9 Years
  3. Others including Material Handling /Pipeline/Welding

Equipments [NESD] 12 Years

(l) Plant and Machinery used in salt works [NESD] 15 Years

V. Furniture and fittings [NESD]

(i) General furniture and fittings 10 Years

(ii) Furniture and fittings used in hotels, restaurants and boarding houses,

schools, colleges and other educational institutions, libraries; welfare

centres; meeting halls, cinema houses; theatres and circuses; and

furniture and fittings let out on hire for use on the occasion of marriages

and similar functions. 8 Years

  1. Motor Vehicles [NESD]
  2. Motor cycles, scooters and other mopeds 10 Years
  3. Motor buses, motor lorries, motor cars and motor taxies used in

a business of running them on hire 6 Years

  1. Motor buses, motor lorries and motor cars other than those used

in a business of running them on hire 8 Years

  1. Motor tractors, harvesting combines and heavy vehicles -do-
  2. Electrically operated vehicles including battery powered or fuel

cell powered vehicles 8 Years

VII. Ships [NESD]

  1. Ocean-going ships

(i) Bulk Carriers and liner vessels 25 Years

(ii) Crude tankers, product carriers and easy chemical carriers with or

without conventional tank coatings. 20 Years

(iii) Chemicals and Acid Carriers:

(a) With Stainless steel tanks 25 Years

(b) With other tanks 20 Years

(iv) Liquified gas carriers 30 Years

(v) Conventional large passenger vessels which are used for cruise

purpose also -do-

(vi) Coastal service ships of all categories -do-

(vii) Offshore supply and support vessels 20 Years

(viii) Catamarans and other high speed passenger for ships or boats –do

(ix) Drill ships 25 Years

(x) Hovercrafts 15 Years

(xi) Fishing vessels with wooden hull 10 Years

(xii) Dredgers, tugs, barges, survey launches and other similar ships

used mainly for dredging purposes 14 Years

  1. Vessels ordinarily operating on inland waters—

(i) Speed boats 13 Years

(ii) Other vessels 28 Years

VIII. Aircrafts or Helicopters [NESD] 20 Years

  1. Railways sidings, locomotives, rolling stocks, tramways and

railways used by concerns, excluding railway concerns [NESD] 15 Years

  1. Ropeway structures [NESD] 15 Years
  2. Office equipment [NESD] 5 Years

XII. Computers and data processing units [NESD]

(i) Servers and networks 6 Years

(ii) End user devices, such as, desktops, laptops, etc. 3 Years

XIII. Laboratory equipment [NESD]

(i) General laboratory equipment 10 Years

(ii) Laboratory equipments used in educational institutions 5 Years

XIV. Electrical Installations and Equipment [NESD] 10 years

  1. Hydraulic works, pipelines and sluices [NESD] 15 Years

Notes.—

  1. “Factory buildings” does not include offices, godowns, staff quarters.
  2. Where, during any financial year, any addition has been made to any asset, or where any asset has been sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed, the depreciation on such assets shall be calculated on a pro rata basis from the date of such addition or, as the case may be, up to the date on which such asset has been sold, discarded, demolished or destroyed.
  3. The following information shall also be disclosed in the accounts, namely:—

(i) depreciation methods used; and

(ii) the useful lives of the assets for computing depreciation, if they are different from the life specified in the Schedule.

  1. Useful life specified in Part C of the Schedule is for whole of the asset. Where cost of a part of the asset is significant to total cost of the asset and useful life of that part is different from the useful life of the remaining asset, useful life of that significant part shall be determined separately.
  2. Depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. Ordinarily, the residual value of an asset is often insignificant but it should generally be not more than 5% of the original cost of the asset.
  3. The useful lives of assets working on shift basis have been specified in the Schedule based on their single shift working. Except for assets in respect of which no extra shift depreciation is permitted (indicated by NESD in Part C above), if an asset is used for any time during the year for double shift, the depreciation will increase by 50% for that period and in case of the triple shift the depreciation shall be calculated on the basis of 100% for that period.
  4. From the date this Schedule comes into effect, the carrying amount of the asset as on that date—

(a) shall be depreciated over the remaining useful life of the asset as per this Schedule;

(b) after retaining the residual value, shall be recognised in the opening balance of retained earnings where the remaining useful life of an asset is nil.

  1. ‘‘Continuous process plant’’ means a plant which is required and designed to operate for twenty-four hours a day.

Schedule III

(See section 129)

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF BALANCE SHEET AND STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS OF A COMPANY GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

  1. Where compliance with the requirements of the Act including Accounting Standards as applicable to the companies require any change in treatment or disclosure including addition, amendment, substitution or deletion in the head or sub-head or any changes, inter se, in the financial statements or statements forming part thereof, the same shall be made and the requirements of this Schedule shall stand modified accordingly.
  2. The disclosure requirements specified in this Schedule are in addition to and not in substitution of the disclosure requirements specified in the Accounting Standards prescribed under the Companies Act, 2013. Additional disclosures specified in the Accounting Standards shall be made in the notes to accounts or by way of additional statement unless required to be disclosed on the face of the Financial Statements. Similarly, all other disclosures as required by the Companies Act shall be made in the notes to accounts in addition to the requirements set out in this Schedule.
  3. (i) Notes to accounts shall contain information in addition to that presented in the Financial Statements and shall provide where required (a) narrative descriptions or disaggregations of items recognised in those statements; and (b) information about items that do not qualify for recognition in those statements.

(ii) Each item on the face of the Balance Sheet and Statement of Profit and Loss shall be cross-referenced to any related information in the notes to accounts. In preparing the Financial Statements including the notes to accounts, a balance shall be maintained between providing excessive detail that may not assist users of financial statements and not providing important information as a result of too much aggregation.

  1. (i) Depending upon the turnover of the company, the figures appearing in the

Financial Statements may be rounded off as given below:—

TurnoverRounding off
(a) less than one hundred crore rupeesTo the nearest hundreds, thousands, lakhs

or millions, or decimals thereof.(b) one hundred crore rupees or moreTo the nearest lakhs, millions or crores, or

decimals thereof.

(ii) Once a unit of measurement is used, it shall be used uniformly in the Financial

Statements.

  1. Except in the case of the first Financial Statements laid before the Company (after its incorporation) the corresponding amounts (comparatives) for the immediately preceding reporting period for all items shown in the Financial Statements including notes shall also be given.
  2. For the purpose of this Schedule, the terms used herein shall be as per the applicable Accounting Standards.

Note:—This part of Schedule sets out the minimum requirements for disclosure on the face of the Balance Sheet, and the Statement of Profit and Loss (hereinafter referred to as “Financial Statements” for the purpose of this Schedule) and Notes. Line items, sub-line items and sub-totals shall be presented as an addition or substitution on the face of the Financial Statements when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the company’s financial position or performance or to cater to industry/sector-specific disclosure requirements or when required for compliance with the amendments to the Companies Act or under the Accounting Standards.

PART I — BALANCE SHEET

Name of the Company…………………….

Balance Sheet as at ………………………

(Rupees in…………)

ParticularsNote No.Figures as at the end of current reporting periodFigures as at the end of the previous reporting period
1234

I. EQUITY AND LIABILITIES

(1) Shareholders’ funds

(a) Share capital

(b) Reserves and surplus

(c) Money received against share warrants

(2) Share application money pending allotment

(3) Non-current liabilities

(a) Long-term borrowings

(b) Deferred tax liabilities (Net)

(c) Other Long term liabilities

(d) Long-term provisions

(4) Current liabilities

(a) Short-term borrowings

(b) Trade payables

(c) Other current liabilities

(d) Short-term provisions

TOTAL

II. ASSETS

Non-current assets

(1) (a) Fixed assets

(i) Tangible assets

(ii) Intangible assets

(iii) Capital work-in-progress

(iv) Intangible assets under development

(b) Non-current investments

(c) Deferred tax assets (net)

(d) Long-term loans and advances

(e) Other non-current assets

(2) Current assets

(a) Current investments

(b) Inventories

(c) Trade receivables

(d) Cash and cash equivalents

(e) Short-term loans and advances

(f) Other current assets

TOTAL

See accompanying notes to the Financial Statements.

Notes

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF BALANCE SHEET

  1. An asset shall be classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:—

(a) it is expected to be realised in, or is intended for sale or consumption in, the company’s normal operating cycle;

(b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

(c) it is expected to be realised within twelve months after the reporting date; or

(d) it is cash or cash equivalent unless it is restricted from being exchanged or used to settle a liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date. All other assets shall be classified as non-current.

  1. An operating cycle is the time between the acquisition of assets for processing and their realisation in cash or cash equivalents. Where the normal operating cycle cannot be identified, it is assumed to have a duration of twelve months.
  2. A liability shall be classified as current when it satisfies any of the following criteria:—

(a) it is expected to be settled in the company’s normal operating cycle;

(b) it is held primarily for the purpose of being traded;

(c) it is due to be settled within twelve months after the reporting date; or

(d) the company does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the reporting date. Terms of a liability that could, at the option of the counterparty, result in its settlement by the issue of equity instruments do not affect its classification. All other liabilities shall be classified as non-current.

  1. A receivable shall be classified as a “trade receivable” if it is in respect of the amount due on account of goods sold or services rendered in the normal course of business.
  2. A payable shall be classified as a “trade payable” if it is in respect of the amount due on account of goods purchased or services received in the normal course of business.
  3. A company shall disclose the following in the notes to accounts.

A. Share Capital

For each class of share capital (different classes of preference shares to be treated separately):

(a) the number and amount of shares authorised;

(b) the number of shares issued, subscribed and fully paid, and subscribed but not fully paid;

(c) par value per share;

(d) a reconciliation of the number of shares outstanding at the beginning and at the end of the reporting period;

(e) the rights, preferences and restrictions attaching to each class of shares including restrictions on the distribution of dividends and the repayment of capital;

(f) shares in respect of each class in the company held by its holding company or its ultimate holding company including shares held by or by subsidiaries or associates of the holding company or the ultimate holding company in aggregate;

(g) shares in the company held by each shareholder holding more than 5 per cent. Shares specifying the number of shares held;

(h) shares reserved for issue under options and contracts/commitments for the sale of shares/disinvestment, including the terms and amounts;

(i) for the period of five years immediately preceding the date as at which the Balance Sheet is prepared:

(A) Aggregate number and class of shares allotted as fully paid-up pursuant to contract(s) without payment being received in cash.

(B) Aggregate number and class of shares allotted as fully paid-up by way of bonus shares.

(C) Aggregate number and class of shares bought back.

(j) terms of any securities convertible into equity/preference shares issued along with the earliest date of conversion in descending order starting from the farthest such date;

(k) calls unpaid (showing aggregate value of calls unpaid by directors and officers);

(l) forfeited shares (amount originally paid-up).

B. Reserves and Surplus

(i) Reserves and Surplus shall be classified as:

(a) Capital Reserves;

(b) Capital Redemption Reserve;

(c) Securities Premium Reserve;

(d) Debenture Redemption Reserve;

(e) Revaluation Reserve;

(f) Share Options Outstanding Account;

(g) Other Reserves–(specify the nature and purpose of each reserve and the amount in respect thereof);

(h) Surplus i.e., balance in Statement of Profit and Loss disclosing allocations and appropriations such as dividend, bonus shares and transfer to/ from reserves, etc.; (Additions and deductions since last balance sheet to be shown under each of the specified heads);

(ii) A reserve specifically represented by earmarked investments shall be termed as a “fund”.

(iii) Debit balance of statement of profit and loss shall be shown as a negative figure under the head “Surplus”. Similarly, the balance of “Reserves and Surplus”, after adjusting negative balance of surplus, if any, shall be shown under the head “Reserves and Surplus” even if the resulting figure is in the negative.

C. Long-Term Borrowings

(i) Long-term borrowings shall be classified as:

(a) Bonds/debentures;

(b) Term loans:

(A) from banks.

(B) from other parties.

(c) Deferred payment liabilities;

(d) Deposits;

(e) Loans and advances from related parties;

(f) Long term maturities of finance lease obligations;

(g) Other loans and advances (specify nature).

(ii) Borrowings shall further be sub-classified as secured and unsecured. Nature of security shall be specified separately in each case.

(iii) Where loans have been guaranteed by directors or others, the aggregate amount of such loans under each head shall be disclosed.

(iv) Bonds/debentures (along with the rate of interest and particulars of redemption or conversion, as the case may be) shall be stated in descending order of maturity or conversion, starting from farthest redemption or conversion date, as the case may be. Where bonds/debentures are redeemable by instalments, the date of maturity for this purpose must be reckoned as the date on which the first installment becomes due.

(v) Particulars of any redeemed bonds/debentures which the company has power to reissue shall be disclosed.

(vi)Terms of repayment of term loans and other loans shall be stated. (vii) Period and amount of continuing default as on the balance sheet date in repayment of loans and interest, shall be specified separately in each case.

D. Other Long-term Liabilities

Other Long-term Liabilities shall be classified as:

(a) Trade payables;

(b) Others.

E. Long-term provisions

The amounts shall be classified as:

(a) Provision for employee benefits;

(b) Others (specify nature).

F. Short-term borrowings

(i) Short-term borrowings shall be classified as:

(a) Loans repayable on demand;

(A) from banks.

(B) from other parties.

(b) Loans and advances from related parties;

(c) Deposits;

(d) Other loans and advances (specify nature).

(ii) Borrowings shall further be sub-classified as secured and unsecured. Nature of security shall be specified separately in each case.

(iii) Where loans have been guaranteed by directors or others, the aggregate amount of such loans under each head shall be disclosed.

(iv) Period and amount of default as on the balance sheet date in repayment of loans and interest, shall be specified separately in each case.

G. Other current liabilities

The amounts shall be classified as:

(a) Current maturities of long-term debt;

(b) Current maturities of finance lease obligations;

(c) Interest accrued but not due on borrowings;

(d) Interest accrued and due on borrowings;

(e) Income received in advance;

(f) Unpaid dividends;

(g) Application money received for allotment of securities and due for refund and interest accrued thereon. Share application money includes advances towards allotment of share capital. The terms and conditions including the number of shares proposed to be issued, the amount of premium, if any, and the period before which shares shall be allotted shall be disclosed. It shall also be disclosed whether the company has sufficient authorised capital to cover the share capital amount resulting from allotment of shares out of such share application money. Further, the period for which the share application money has been pending beyond the period for allotment as mentioned in the document inviting application for shares along with the reason for such share application money being pending shall be disclosed. Share application money not exceeding the issued capital and to the extent not refundable shall be shown under the head Equity and share application money to the extent refundable, i.e., the amount in excess of subscription or in case the requirements of minimum subscription are not met, shall be separately shown under “Óther current liabilities”;

(h) Unpaid matured deposits and interest accrued thereon;

(i) Unpaid matured debentures and interest accrued thereon;

(j) Other payables (specify nature).

H. Short-term provisions

The amounts shall be classified as:

(a) Provision for employee benefits.

(b) Others (specify nature).

I. Tangible assets

(i) Classification shall be given as:

(a) Land;

(b) Buildings;

(c) Plant and Equipment;

(d) Furniture and Fixtures;

(e) Vehicles;

(f) Office equipment;

(g) Others (specify nature).

(ii) Assets under lease shall be separately specified under each class of asset.

(iii) A reconciliation of the gross and net carrying amounts of each class of assets at the beginning and end of the reporting period showing additions, disposals, acquisitions through business combinations and other adjustments and the related depreciation and impairment losses/reversals shall be disclosed separately. (iv)Where sums have been written-off on a reduction of capital or revaluation of assets or where sums have been added on revaluation of assets, every balance sheet subsequent to date of such write-off, or addition shall show the reduced or increased figures as applicable and shall by way of a note also show the amount of the reduction or increase as applicable together with the date thereof for the first five years subsequent to the date of such reduction or increase.

J. Intangible assets

(i) Classification shall be given as:

(a) Goodwill;

(b) Brands /trademarks;

(c) Computer software;

(d) Mastheads and publishing titles;

(e) Mining rights;

(f) Copyrights, and patents and other intellectual property rights, services and operating rights;

(g) Recipes, formulae, models, designs and prototypes;

(h) Licences and franchise;

(i) Others (specify nature).

(ii) A reconciliation of the gross and net carrying amounts of each class of assets at the beginning and end of the reporting period showing additions, disposals, acquisitions through business combinations and other adjustments and the related amortization and impairment losses/reversals shall be disclosed separately.

(iii) Where sums have been written-off on a reduction of capital or revaluation of assets or where sums have been added on revaluation of assets, every balance sheet subsequent to date of such write-off, or addition shall show the reduced or increased figures as applicable and shall by way of a note also show the amount of the reduction or increase as applicable together with the date thereof for the first five years subsequent to the date of such reduction or increase.

K. Non-current investments

(i) Non-current investments shall be classified as trade investments and other investments and further classified as:

(a) Investment property;

(b) Investments in Equity Instruments;

(c) Investments in preference shares;

(d) Investments in Government or trust securities;

(e) Investments in debentures or bonds;

(f) Investments in Mutual Funds;

(g) Investments in partnership firms;

(h) Other non-current investments (specify nature).

Under each classification, details shall be given of names of the bodies corporate indicating separately whether such bodies are (i) subsidiaries, (ii) associates,

(iii) joint ventures, or (iv) controlled special purpose entities in whom investments have been made and the nature and extent of the investment so made in each such body corporate (showing separately investments which are partly-paid). In regard to investments in the capital of partnership firms, the names of the firms (with the names of all their partners, total capital and the shares of each partner) shall be given.

(ii) Investments carried at other than at cost should be separately stated specifying the basis for valuation thereof;

(iii) The following shall also be disclosed:

(a) Aggregate amount of quoted investments and market value thereof;

(b) Aggregate amount of unquoted investments;

(c) Aggregate provision for diminution in value of investments.

L. Long-term loans and advances

(i) Long-term loans and advances shall be classified as:

(a) Capital Advances;

(b) Security Deposits;

(c) Loans and advances to related parties (giving details thereof);

(d) Other loans and advances (specify nature).

(ii) The above shall also be separately sub-classified as:

(a) Secured, considered good;

(b) Unsecured, considered good;

(c) Doubtful.

(iii) Allowance for bad and doubtful loans and advances shall be disclosed under the relevant heads separately.

(iv) Loans and advances due by directors or other officers of the company or any of them either severally or jointly with any other persons or amounts due by firms or private companies respectively in which any director is a partner or a director or a member should be separately stated.

M. Other non-current assets

Other non-current assets shall be classified as:

(i) Long-term Trade Receivables (including trade receivables on deferred credit terms);

(ii) Others (specify nature);

(iii) Long term Trade Receivables, shall be sub-classified as:

(A) (a) Secured, considered good;

(B) Unsecured, considered good;

(C) Doubtful.

(b) Allowance for bad and doubtful debts shall be disclosed under the relevant heads separately.

(c) Debts due by directors or other officers of the company or any of them either severally or jointly with any other person or debts due by firms or private companies respectively in which any director is a partner or a director or a member should be separately stated.

N. Current Investments

(i) Current investments shall be classified as:

(a) Investments in Equity Instruments;

(b) Investment in Preference Shares;

(c) Investments in Government or trust securities;

(d) Investments in debentures or bonds;

(e) Investments in Mutual Funds;

(f) Investments in partnership firms;

(g) Other investments (specify nature).

Under each classification, details shall be given of names of the bodies corporate [indicating separately whether such bodies are: (i) subsidiaries, (ii) associates,

(iii) joint ventures, or (iv) controlled special purpose entities] in whom investments have been made and the nature and extent of the investment so made in each such body corporate (showing separately investments which are partly paid). In regard to investments in the capital of partnership firms, the names of the firms (with the names of all their partners, total capital and the shares of each partner) shall be given.

(ii) The following shall also be disclosed:

(a) The basis of valuation of individual investments;

(b) Aggregate amount of quoted investments and market value thereof;

(c) Aggregate amount of unquoted investments;

(d) Aggregate provision made for diminution in value of investments.

O. Inventories

(i) Inventories shall be classified as:

(a) Raw materials;

(b) Work-in-progress;

(c) Finished goods;

(d) Stock-in-trade (in respect of goods acquired for trading);

(e) Stores and spares;

(f) Loose tools;

(g) Others (specify nature).

(ii) Goods-in-transit shall be disclosed under the relevant sub-head of inventories.

(iii) Mode of valuation shall be stated.

P. Trade Receivables

(i) Aggregate amount of Trade Receivables outstanding for a period exceeding six months from the date they are due for payment should be separately stated.

(ii) Trade receivables shall be sub-classified as:

(a) Secured, considered good;

(b) Unsecured, considered good;

(c) Doubtful.

(iii) Allowance for bad and doubtful debts shall be disclosed under the relevant heads separately.

(iv) Debts due by directors or other officers of the company or any of them either severally or jointly with any other person or debts due by firms or private companies respectively in which any director is a partner or a director or a member should be separately stated.

Q. Cash and cash equivalents

(i) Cash and cash equivalents shall be classified as:

(a) Balances with banks;

(b) Cheques, drafts on hand;

(c) Cash on hand;

(d) Others (specify nature).

(ii) Earmarked balances with banks (for example, for unpaid dividend) shall be separately stated.

(iii) Balances with banks to the extent held as margin money or security against the borrowings, guarantees, other commitments shall be disclosed separately.

(iv) Repatriation restrictions, if any, in respect of cash and bank balances shall be separately stated.

(v) Bank deposits with more than twelve months maturity shall be disclosed separately.

R. Short-term loans and advances

(i) Short-term loans and advances shall be classified as:

(a) Loans and advances to related parties (giving details thereof);

(b) Others (specify nature).

(ii) The above shall also be sub-classified as:

(a) Secured, considered good;

(b) Unsecured, considered good;

(c) Doubtful.

(iii) Allowance for bad and doubtful loans and advances shall be disclosed under the relevant heads separately.

(iv) Loans and advances due by directors or other officers of the company or any of them either severally or jointly with any other person or amounts due by firms or private companies respectively in which any director is a partner or a director or a member shall be separately stated.

S. Other current assets (specify nature)

This is an all-inclusive heading, which incorporates current assets that do not fit into any other asset categories.

T. Contingent liabilities and commitments (to the extent not provided for)

(i) Contingent liabilities shall be classified as:

(a) Claims against the company not acknowledged as debt;

(b) Guarantees;

(c) Other money for which the company is contingently liable.

(ii) Commitments shall be classified as:

(a) Estimated amount of contracts remaining to be executed on capital account and not provided for;

(b) Uncalled liability on shares and other investments partly paid;

(c) Other commitments (specify nature).

  1. The amount of dividends proposed to be distributed to equity and preference shareholders for the period and the related amount per share shall be disclosed separately. Arrears of fixed cumulative dividends on preference shares shall also be disclosed separately.
  2. Where in respect of an issue of securities made for a specific purpose, the whole or part of the amount has not been used for the specific purpose at the balance sheet date, there shall be indicated by way of note how such unutilised amounts have been used or invested.
  3. If, in the opinion of the Board, any of the assets other than fixed assets and non-current investments do not have a value on realisation in the ordinary course of business at least equal to the amount at which they are stated, the fact that the Board is of that opinion, shall be stated.

PART II – STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS

Name of the Company…………………….

Profit and loss statement for the year ended ………………………

(Rupees in…………)

ParticularsNote No.Figures as at the end of current reporting periodFigures as at the end of the previous reporting period
1234
IRevenue from operationsxxxxxx
IIOther incomexxxxxx
IIITotal Revenue (I + II)xxxxxx
IVExpenses:

Cost of materials consumed

 

Purchases of Stock-in-Trade

 

Changes in inventories of finished goods work-in-progress and Stock-in-Trade

 

Employee benefits expense Finance costs

 

Depreciation and amortization expense

 

Other expenses

 

Total expenses

Xxx

 

Xxx

 

Xxx

 

 

 

xxx

Xxx

 

Xxx

 

Xxx

 

 

 

Xxx

VProfit before exceptional and extraordinary items and tax (III – IV) xxxxxxVIExceptional items xxxxxxVIIProfit before extraordinary items and tax (V – VI) xxxxxxVIIIExtraordinary items xxxxxxIXProfit before tax (VII- VIII) xxxxxxXTax expense:

(1) Current tax

(2) Deferred tax

Xxx

Xxx

Xxx

XxxXIProfit (Loss) for the period from continuing operations (VII-VIII) xxxxxxXIIProfit/(loss) from discontinuing operations xxxxxxXIIITax expense of discontinuing operations xxxxxxXIVProfit/(loss) from Discontinuing operations (after tax) (XII-XIII) xxxxxxXVProfit (Loss) for the period (XI + XIV) xxxxxxXVIEarnings per equity share:

(1) Basic

(2) Diluted

Xxx

xxx

Xxx

xxx

See accompanying notes to the financial statements.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF STATEMENT OF PROFIT AND LOSS

Schedule IV

[See section 149(8)]

CODE FOR INDEPENDENT DIRECTORS

The Code is a guide to professional conduct for independent directors. Adherence to these standards by independent directors and fulfillment of their responsibilities in a professional and faithful manner will promote confidence of the investment community, particularly minority shareholders, regulators and companies in the institution of independent directors.

I. Guidelines of professional conduct:

An independent director shall:

(1) uphold ethical standards of integrity and probity;

(2) act objectively and constructively while exercising his duties;

(3) exercise his responsibilities in a bona fide manner in the interest of the company;

(4) devote sufficient time and attention to his professional obligations for informed and balanced decision making;

(5) not allow any extraneous considerations that will vitiate his exercise of objective independent judgment in the paramount interest of the company as a whole, while concurring in or dissenting from the collective judgment of the Board in its decision making;

(6) not abuse his position to the detriment of the company or its shareholders or for the purpose of gaining direct or indirect personal advantage or advantage for any associated person;

(7) refrain from any action that would lead to loss of his independence;

(8) where circumstances arise which make an independent director lose his independence, the independent director must immediately inform the Board accordingly;

(9) assist the company in implementing the best corporate governance practices.

II. Role and functions:

The independent directors shall:

(1) help in bringing an independent judgment to bear on the Board’s deliberations especially on issues of strategy, performance, risk management, resources, key appointments and standards of conduct;

(2) bring an objective view in the evaluation of the performance of board and management;

(3) scrutinise the performance of management in meeting agreed goals and objectives and monitor the reporting of performance;

(4) satisfy themselves on the integrity of financial information and that financial controls and the systems of risk management are robust and defensible;

(5) safeguard the interests of all stakeholders, particularly the minority shareholders;

(6) balance the conflicting interest of the stakeholders;

(7) determine appropriate levels of remuneration of executive directors, key managerial personnel and senior management and have a prime role in appointing and where necessary recommend removal of executive directors, key managerial personnel and senior management;

(8) moderate and arbitrate in the interest of the company as a whole, in situations of conflict between management and shareholder’s interest.

III. Duties:

The independent directors shall—

(1) undertake appropriate induction and regularly update and refresh their skills, knowledge and familiarity with the company;

(2) seek appropriate clarification or amplification of information and, where necessary, take and follow appropriate professional advice and opinion of outside experts at the expense of the company;

(3) strive to attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the Board committees of which he is a member;

(4) participate constructively and actively in the committees of the Board in which they are chairpersons or members;

(5) strive to attend the general meetings of the company;

(6) where they have concerns about the running of the company or a proposed action, ensure that these are addressed by the Board and, to the extent that they are not resolved, insist that their concerns are recorded in the minutes of the

Board meeting;

(7) keep themselves well informed about the company and the external environment in which it operates;

(8) not to unfairly obstruct the functioning of an otherwise proper Board or committee of the Board;

(9) pay sufficient attention and ensure that adequate deliberations are held before approving related party transactions and assure themselves that the same are in the interest of the company;

(10) ascertain and ensure that the company has an adequate and functional vigil mechanism and to ensure that the interests of a person who uses such mechanism are not prejudicially affected on account of such use;

(11) report concerns about unethical behaviour, actual or suspected fraud or violation of the company’s code of conduct or ethics policy;

(12) acting within his authority, assist in protecting the legitimate interests of the company, shareholders and its employees;

(13) not disclose confidential information, including commercial secrets, technologies, advertising and sales promotion plans, unpublished price sensitive information, unless such disclosure is expressly approved by the Board or required by law.

IV. Manner of appointment:

(1) Appointment process of independent dir ectors shall be independent of the company management; while selecting independent directors the Board shall ensure that there is appropriate balance of skills, experience and knowledge in the Board so as to enable the Board to discharge its functions and duties effectively.

(2) The appointment of independent director(s) of the company shall be approved at the meeting of the shareholders.

(3) The explanatory statement attached to the notice of the meeting for approving the appointment of independent director shall include a statement that in the opinion of the Board, the independent director proposed to be appointed fulfils the conditions specified in the Act and the rules made there under and that the proposed director is independent of the management.

(4) The appointment of independent directors shall be formalised through a letter of appointment, which shall set out :

(a) the term of appointment;

(b) the expectation of the Board from the appointed director; the Board-level committee(s) in which the director is expected to serve and its tasks;

(c) the fiduciary duties that come with such an appointment along with accompanying liabilities;

(d) provision for Directors and Officers (D and O) insurance, if any;

(e) the Code of Business Ethics that the company expects its directors and employees to follow;

(f) the list of actions that a director should not do while functioning as such in the company; and

(g) the remuneration, mentioning periodic fees, reimbursement of expenses for participation in the Boards and other meetings and profit related commission, if any.

(5) The terms and conditions of appointment of independent directors shall be open for inspection at the registered office of the company by any member during normal business hours.

(6) The terms and conditions of appointment of independent directors shall also be posted on the company’s website.

V. Re-appointment:

The re-appointment of independent director shall be on the basis of report of performance evaluation.

VI. Resignation or removal:

(1) The resignation or removal of an independent director shall be in the same manner as is provided in sections 168 and 169 of the Act.

(2) An independent director who resigns or is removed from the Board of the company shall be replaced by a new independent director within a period of not more than one hundred and eighty days from the date of such resignation or removal, as the case may be.

(3) Where the company fulfils the requirement of independent directors in its Board even without filling the vacancy created by such resignation or removal, as the case may be, the requirement of replacement by a new independent director shall not apply.

VII. Separate meetings:

(1) The independent directors of the company shall hold at least one meeting in a year, without the attendance of non-independent directors and members of management;

(2) All the independent directors of the company shall strive to be present at such meeting;

(3) The meeting shall:

(a) review the performance of non-independent directors and the Board as a whole;

(b) review the performance of the Chairperson of the company, taking into account the views of executive directors and non-executive directors;

(c) assess the quality, quantity and timeliness of flow of information between the company management and the Board that is necessary for the Board to effectively and reasonably perform their duties.

VIII. Evaluation mechanism:

(1) The performance evaluation of independent directors shall be done by the entire Board of Directors, excluding the director being evaluated.

(2) On the basis of the report of performance evaluation, it shall be determined whether to extend or continue the term of appointment of the independent director.

Schedule V

(See sections 196 and 197)

PART I

CONDITIONS TO BE FULFILLED FOR THE APPOINTMENT OF A MANAGING OR WHOLE-TIME DIRECTOR OR A MANAGER WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

APPOINTMENTS

No person shall be eligible for appointment as a managing or whole-time director or a manager (hereinafter referred to as managerial person) of a company unless he satisfies the following conditions, namely:—

(a) he had not been sentenced to imprisonment for any period, or to a fine exceeding one thousand rupees, for the conviction of an offence under any of the following Acts, namely:—

(i) the Indian Stamp Act, 1899 (2 of 1899);

(ii) the Central Excise Act, 1944 (1 of 1944);

(iii) the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (65 of 1951);

(iv) the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954);

(v) the Essential Commodities Act, 1955 (10 of 1955);

(vi) the Companies Act, 2013;

(vii) the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956);

(viii) the Wealth-tax Act, 1957 (27 of 1957);

(ix) the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961);

(x) the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962);

(xi) the Competition Act, 2002 (12 of 2003);

(xii) the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (42 of 1999);

(xiii) the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986);

(xiv) the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992);

(xv) the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1922 (22 of 1922);

(xvi) the Prevention of Money-Laundering Act, 2002 (15 of 2003);

(b) he had not been detained for any period under the Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (52 of 1974): Provided that where the Central Government has given its approval to the appointment of a person convicted or detained under sub-paragraph (a) or sub-paragraph (b), as the case may be, no further approval of the Central Government shall be necessary for the subsequent appointment of that person if he had not been so convicted or detained subsequent to such approval.

(c) he has completed the age of twenty-one years and has not attained the age of seventy years: Provided that where he has attained the age of seventy years; and where his appointment is approved by a special resolution passed by the company in general meeting, no further approval of the Central Government shall be necessary for such appointment;

(d) where he is a managerial person in more than one company, he draws remuneration from one or more companies subject to the ceiling provided in section V of Part II;

(e) he is resident of India.

Explanation I.—For the purpose of this Schedule, resident in India includes a person who has been staying in India for a continuous period of not less than twelve months immediately preceding the date of his appointment as a managerial person and who has come to stay in India,—

(i) for taking up employment in India; or

(ii) for carrying on a business or vacation in India.

Explanation II.—This condition shall not apply to the companies in Special Economic Zones as notified by Department of Commerce from time to time: Provided that a person, being a non-resident in India shall enter India only after obtaining a proper Employment Visa from the concerned Indian mission abroad. For this purpose, such person shall be required to furnish, along with the visa application form, profile of the company, the principal employer and terms and conditions of such person’s appointment.

PART II

REMUNERATION

Section I.— Remuneration payable by companies having profits:

Subject to the provisions of section 197, a company having profits in a financial year may pay remuneration to a managerial person or persons not exceeding the limits specified in such section.

Section II.— Remuneration payable by companies having no profit or inadequate profit without Central Government approval:

Where in any financial year during the currency of tenure of a managerial person, a company has no profits or its profits are inadequate, it may, without Central Government approval, pay remuneration to the managerial person not exceeding the higher of the limits under (A) and (B) given below:—

(A):

(1)(2)
Where the effective capital isLimit of yearly remuneration

payable shall not exceed (Rupees)(i) Negative or less than 5 crores30 lakhs(ii) 5 crores and above but less than 100 crores42 lakhs(iii) 100 crores and above but less than 250 crores60 lakhs(iv) 250 crores and above60 lakhs plus 0.01% of the effective

capital in excess of Rs. 250 crores:

Provided that the above limits shall be doubled if the resolution passed by the shareholders is a special resolution.

Explanation.—It is hereby clarified that for a period less than one year, the limits shall be pro-rated.

(B) In the case of a managerial person who was not a security holder holding securities of the company of nominal value of rupees five lakh or more or an employee or a director of the company or not related to any director or promoter at any time during the two years prior to his appointment as a managerial person, — 2.5% of the current relevant profit: Provided that if the resolution passed by the shareholders is a special resolution, this limit shall be doubled:

Provided further that the limits specified under this section shall apply, if—

(i) payment of remuneration is approved by a resolution passed by the Board and, in the case of a company covered under sub-section (1) of section 178 also by the Nomination and Remuneration Committee;

(ii) the company has not made any default in repayment of any of its debts (including public deposits) or debentures or interest payable thereon for a continuous period of thirty days in the preceding financial year before the date of appointment of such managerial person;

(iii) a special resolution has been passed at the general meeting of the company for payment of remuneration for a period not exceeding three years;

(iv) a statement along with a notice calling the general meeting referred to in clause (iii) is given to the shareholders containing the following information, namely:—

  1. General Information:

(1) Nature of industry

(2) Date or expected date of commencement of commercial production

(3) In case of new companies, expected date of commencement of activities as per project approved by financial institutions appearing in the prospectus

(4) Financial performance based on given indicators

(5) Foreign investments or collaborations, if any.

  1. Information about the appointee:

(1) Background details

(2) Past remuneration

(3) Recognition or awards

(4) Job profile and his suitability

(5) Remuneration proposed

(6) Comparative remuneration profile with respect to industry, size of the company, profile of the position and person (in case of expatriates the relevant details would be with respect to the country of his origin)

(7) Pecuniary relationship directly or indirectly with the company, or relationship with the managerial personnel, if any.

III. Other information:

(1) Reasons of loss or inadequate profits

(2) Steps taken or proposed to be taken for improvement

(3) Expected increase in productivity and profits in measurable terms.

  1. Disclosures:

The following disclosures shall be mentioned in the Board of Director’s report under the heading “Corporate Governance”, if any, attached to the financial statement:—

(i) all elements of remuneration package such as salary, benefits, bonuses,

stock options, pension, etc., of all the directors;

(ii) details of fixed component and performance linked incentives along with the performance criteria;

(iii) service contracts, notice period, severance fees;

(iv) stock option details, if any, and whether the same has been issued at a discount as well as the period over which accrued and over which exercisable.

Section III.— Remuneration payable by companies having no profit or inadequate profit without Central Government approval in certain special circumstances:

In the following circumstances a company may, without the Central Government approval, pay remuneration to a managerial person in excess of the amounts provided in Section II above:—

(a) where the remuneration in excess of the limits specified in Section I or II is paid by any other company and that other company is either a foreign company or has got the approval of its shareholders in general meeting to make such payment, and treats this amount as managerial remuneration for the purpose of section 197 and the total managerial remuneration payable by such other company to its managerial persons including such amount or amounts is within permissible limits under section 197.

(b) where the company—

(i) is a newly incorporated company, for a period of seven years from the date of its incorporation, or

(ii) is a sick company, for whom a scheme of revival or rehabilitation has been ordered by the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction or National

Company Law Tribunal, for a period of five years from the date of sanction of scheme of revival, it may pay remuneration up to two times the amount permissible under Section II.

(c) where remuneration of a managerial person exceeds the limits in Section II but the remuneration has been fixed by the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction or the National Company Law Tribunal: Provided that the limits under this Section shall be applicable subject to meeting all the conditions specified under Section II and the following additional conditions:—

(i) except as provided in para (a) of this Section, the managerial person is not receiving remuneration from any other company;

(ii) the auditor or Company Secretary of the company or where the company has not appointed a Secretary, a Secretary in whole-time practice, certifies that all secured creditors and term lenders have stated in writing that they have no objection for the appointment of the managerial person as well as the quantum of remuneration and such certificate is filed along with the return as prescribed under sub-section (4) of section 196.

(iii) the auditor or Company Secretary or where the company has not appointed a secretary, a secretary in whole-time practice certifies that there is no default on payments to any creditors, and all dues to deposit holders are being settled on time.

(d) a company in a Special Economic Zone as notified by Department of Commerce from time to time which has not raised any money by public issue of shares or debentures in India, and has not made any default in India in repayment of any of its debts (including public deposits) or debentures or interest payable thereon for a continuous period of thirty days in any financial year, may pay remuneration up to Rs. 2,40,00,000 per annum.

Section IV.— Perquisites not included in managerial remuneration:

  1. A managerial person shall be eligible for the following perquisites which shall not be included in the computation of the ceiling on remuneration specified in Section II and Section III:—

(a) contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund or annuity fund to the extent these either singly or put together are not taxable under the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961);

(b) gratuity payable at a rate not exceeding half a month’s salary for each completed year of service; and

(c) encashment of leave at the end of the tenure.

  1. In addition to the perquisites specified in paragraph 1 of this section, an expatriate managerial person (including a non-resident Indian) shall be eligible to the following perquisites which shall not be included in the computation of the ceiling on remuneration specified in Section II or Section III—

(a) Children’s education allowance: In case of children studying in or outside India, an allowance limited to a maximum of Rs. 12,000 per month per child or actual expenses incurred, whichever is less. Such allowance is admissible up to a maximum of two children.

(b) Holiday passage for children studying outside India or family staying abroad: Return holiday passage once in a year by economy class or once in two years by first class to children and to the members of the family from the place of their study or stay abroad to India if they are not residing in India, with the managerial person.

(c) Leave travel concession: Return passage for self and family in accordance with the rules specified by the company where it is proposed that the leave be spent in home country instead of anywhere in India.

Explanation I.— For the purposes of Section II of this Part, “effective capital” means the aggregate of the paid-up share capital (excluding share application money or advances against shares); amount, if any, for the time being standing to the credit of share premium account; reserves and surplus (excluding revaluation reserve); long-term loans and deposits repayable after one year (excluding working capital loans, over drafts, interest due on loans unless funded, bank guarantee, etc., and other short-term arrangements) as reduced by the aggregate of any investments (except in case of investment by an investment company whose principal business is acquisition of shares, stock, debentures or other securities), accumulated losses and preliminary expenses not written off.

Explanation II.— (a) Where the appointment of the managerial person is made in the year in which company has been incorporated, the effective capital shall be calculated as on the date of such appointment;

(b) In any other case the effective capital shall be calculated as on the last date of the financial year preceding the financial year in which the appointment of the managerial person is made.

Explanation III.— For the purposes of this Schedule, ‘‘family’’ means the spouse, dependent children and dependent parents of the managerial person.

Explanation IV.— The Nomination and Remuneration Committee while approving the remuneration under Section II or Section III, shall—

(a) take into account, financial position of the company, trend in the industry, appointee’s qualification, experience, past performance, past remuneration, etc.;

(b) be in a position to bring about objectivity in determining the remuneration package while striking a balance between the interest of the company and the shareholders.

Explanation V.— For the purposes of this Schedule, “negative effective capital” means the effective capital which is calculated in accordance with the provisions contained in Explanation I of this Part is less than zero.

Explanation VI.— For the purposes of this Schedule:—

(A) “current relevant profit” means the profit as calculated under section 198 but without deducting the excess of expenditure over income referred to in sub section 4

(l) there of in respect of those years during which the managerial person was not an employee, director or shareholder of the company or its holding or subsidiary companies.

(B) “Remuneration” means remuneration as defined in clause (78) of section 2 and includes reimbursement of any direct taxes to the managerial person.

Section V. —Remuneration payable to a managerial person in two companies:

Subject to the provisions of sections I to IV, a managerial person shall draw remuneration from one or both companies, provided that the total remuneration drawn from the companies does not exceed the higher maximum limit admissible from any one of the companies of which he is a managerial person.

PART III

Provisions applicable to Parts I and II of this Schedule

  1. The appointment and remuneration referred to in Part I and Part II of this Schedule shall be subject to approval by a resolution of the shareholders in general meeting.
  2. The auditor or the Secretary of the company or where the company is not required to appointed a Secretary, a Secretary in whole-time practice shall certify that the requirement of this Schedule have been complied with and such certificate shall be incorporated in the return filed with the Registrar under sub-section (4) of section 196.

PART IV

The Central Government may, by notification, exempt any class or classes of companies from any of the requirements contained in this Schedule.

Schedule VI

(See sections 55 and 186)

The term “infrastructural projects” or “infrastructural facilities” includes the following projects or activities:—

(1) Transportation (including inter modal transportation), includes the following:—

(a) roads, national highways, state highways, major district roads, other district roads and village roads, including toll roads, bridges, highways, road transport providers and other road-related services;

(b) rail system, rail transport providers, metro rail roads and other railway related services;

(c) ports (including minor ports and harbours), inland waterways, coastal shipping including shipping lines and other port related services;

(d) aviation, including airports, heliports, airlines and other airport related services;

(e) logistics services.

(2) Agriculture, including the following, namely:—

(a) infrastructure related to storage facilities;

(b) construction relating to projects involving agro-processing and supply of inputs to agriculture;

(c) construction for preservation and storage of processed agro-products, perishable goods such as fruits, vegetables and flowers including testing facilities for quality.

(3) Water management, including the following, namely:—

(a) water supply or distribution;

(b) irrigation;

(c) water treatment.

(4) Telecommunication, including the following, namely:—

(a) basic or cellular, including radio paging;

(b) domestic satellite service (i.e., satellite owned and operated by an Indian company for providing telecommunication service);

(c) network of trunking, broadband network and internet services.

(5) Industrial, commercial and social development and maintenance, including the following, namely:—

(a) real estate development, including an industrial park or special economic zone;

(b) tourism, including hotels, convention centres and entertainment centres;

(c) public markets and buildings, trade fair, convention, exhibition, cultural centres, sports and recreation infrastructure, public gardens and parks;

(d) construction of educational institutions and hospitals;

(e) other urban development, including solid waste management systems, sanitation and sewerage systems.

(6) Power, including the following:—

(a) generation of power through thermal, hydro, nuclear, fossil fuel, wind and other renewable sources;

(b) transmission, distribution or trading of power by laying a network of new transmission or distribution lines.

(7) Petroleum and natural gas, including the following:—

(a) exploration and production;

(b) import terminals;

(c) liquefaction and re-gasification;

(d) storage terminals;

(e) transmission networks and distribution networks including city gas infrastructure.

(8) Housing, including the following:—

(a) urban and rural housing including public / mass housing, slum rehabilitation, etc;

(b) other allied activities such as drainage, lighting, laying of roads, sanitation and facilities.

(9) Other miscellaneous facilities/services, including the following:—

(a) mining and related activities;

(b) technology related infrastructure;

(c) manufacturing of components and materials or any other utilities or facilities required by the infrastructure sector like energy saving devices and metering devices;

(d) environment related infrastructure;

(e) disaster management services;

(f) preservation of monuments and icons;

(g) emergency services (including medical, police, fire and rescue).

(10) such other facility service as may be prescribed.

Schedule VII

(See sections 135)

Activities which may be included by companies in their Corporate Social Responsibility Policies Activities relating to:—

(i) eradicating extreme hunger and poverty;

(ii) promotion of education;

(iii) promoting gender equality and empowering women;

(iv) reducing child mortlity and improving maternal health;

(v) combating human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, malaria and other diseases;

(vi) ensuring environmental sustainability;

(vii) employment enhancing vocational skills;

(viii) social business projects;

(ix) contribution to the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund or any other fund set up by the Central Government or the State Governments for socio-economic development and relief and funds for the welfare of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, other backward classes, minorities and women; and (x) such other matters as may be prescribed.

[1] Ministry of Corporate Affairs

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